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Unformatted text preview: 1225 Chapter 37 Molecules Conceptual Problems *1 Determine the Concept Yes. Because the center of charge of the positive Na ion does not coincide with the center of charge for the negative Cl ion, the NaCl molecule has a permanent dipole moment. Hence, it is a polar molecule. 2 Determine the Concept Because a N 2 molecule has no permanent dipole moment, it is a non-polar molecule. 3 Determine the Concept No. Neon occurs naturally as Ne, not Ne 2 . Neon is a rare gas atom with a closed shell electron configuration. 4 Determine the Concept ( a ) Because an electron is transferred from the H atom to the F atom, the bonding mechanism is ionic. ( b ) Because an electron is transferred from the K atom to the Br atom, the bonding mechanism is ionic. ( c ) Because the atoms share two electrons, the bonding mechanism is covalent. ( d ) Because each valence electron is shared by many atoms, the bonding mechanism is metallic bonding. *5 Determine the Concept The diagram would consist of a non-bonding ground state with no vibrational or rotational states for ArF (similar to the upper curve in Figure 37-4) but for ArF* there should be a bonding excited state with a definite minimum with respect to inter-nuclear separation and several vibrational states as in the excited state curve of Figure 37-13. 6 Determine the Concept Elements similar to carbon in outer shell configurations are silicon, germanium, tin, and lead. We would expect the same hybridization for these as Chapter 37 1226 for carbon, and this is indeed the case for silicon and germanium whose crystal structure is the diamond structure. Tin and lead, however, are metallic and here the metallic bond is dominant. 7 Determine the Concept The effective force constant from Example 37-4 is 1.85 10 3 N/m. This value is about 25% larger than the given value of the force constant of the suspension springs on a typical automobile. 8 Determine the Concept As the angular momentum increases, the separation between the nuclei also increases (the effective force between the nuclei is similar to that of a stiff spring). Consequently, the moment of inertia also increases. 9 Determine the Concept For H 2 , the concentration of negative charge between the two protons holds the protons together. In the + 2 H ion, there is only one electron that is shared by the two positive charges such that most of the electronic charge is again between the two protons. However, the negative charge in the + 2 H ion is not as effective as the larger charge in the H 2 molecule, and the protons should be farther apart. The experimental values support this argument. For H 2 , r = 0.074 nm, while for + 2 H , r = 0.106 nm....
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- Spring '07