DFM test 2 - Dairy Ration Considerations 4 Stages: Early...

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Unformatted text preview: Dairy Ration Considerations 4 Stages: Early Dry Prepartum (Close-up) Early Lactation Mid- to Late Lactation Management of Early Dry Period Main Objective Maintain body condition (BCS 3.75) Keys: Feed a bulky forage diet Can use pasture or hay Limit corn silage to 30 lbs/d (as fed; excessive energy) Avoid alfalfa and other legumes (with high Ca) Use concentrates to supplement forage deficiencies. Normally limit to 5 lbs/d Include salt (NaCl) at ~ 0.25% of DM Management of Prepartum Period Main Objective Prepare cow and rumen microbes for lactation ration Keys: Provide small amounts of any unpalatable ingredients you plan to use in lactation ration If you use a TMR (total mixed ration), it can be limit fed (< 30 lbs/d) If feeding grain separately, begin feeding 1 lb/d then increase by 1 lb/d until fed at 1% of BWT Continue pushing long stem hay or grass Management of Early Lactation Period Main Objective Promote high peak milk Keys: Feed a nutrient dense ration Adapt rumen bugs Attain a high DMI Factors Impacting DMI Forage quality poor forages decrease intake Dietary fiber too much or too little NDF is a problem Season summer heat stress can decrease intake Feeding frequency feed often to maximize intake Sequence of feeding if fed separately, feed forage just before grain. Ration dry matter intake decreases above 50% DM in a ration, but you can simply add some water Physical form of feeds dont grind feeds finely Mid- to Late-Lactation Period Main Objective Replace body condition, protein, and Ca reserves Keys: Dietary fiber can be increased Decrease dietary protein and fat Feeding Systems Feeding System Feed Handling Forages and Grains Separately TMR Cow Handling Feeding Animals Individually Group Feeding Separate Forage & Grain Feeding Advantages Grains can be fed in the parlor, and help bring cows in Can save on expensive feed mixing equipment Can reduce wastage of expensive grain Disadvantages Difficult to set forage : grain for nutrient balance Feeds consumed at different times TMR Feeding Advantages Each mouthful is nutritionally balanced Stable fermentation pattern Animals are unable to select feed components Disadvantages Higher equipment costs Grain mixed in refusals are expensive Individual Feeding Advantages Can adjust intake to production / requirements for each cow Can monitor intake for signs of illness Disadvantages Labor intensive (expensive) to dole out Magnetic / Computer feeder alternative is costly Magnetic feeders were generally less reliable with mechanical switches to deliver feed which can be clogged. Magnetic feeders also did not record data, which could be done by computer feeders....
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DFM test 2 - Dairy Ration Considerations 4 Stages: Early...

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