Exam 3 notes

Exam 3 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM III NOTES Dr. Harmych Section...

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BIOL 2150 – EXAM III NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Exam III Notes Chapter 33- Deuterostomate Animals Characteristics of Deuterostomates - Radial cleavage - Blastophore forms the anus - Triploblastic (3- layers) - Coelomates (body cavity) - Internal skeletons Echinoderms - Pentaradial symmetry - Complete digestive system - Coelomates - Sexual reproduction - Bilaterally symmetrical larva - 2 major structural features - Internal skeleton - Water vascular system The Crinoids - Sea Lilies and feather stars - Cup shaped body with many arms Brittle Stars - Arms are composed of jointed hard plates Sea Urchins - Spherical without arms - Covered with spires Sea Cucumbers - Use tube feet for attachment Sea Stars - Tube feet are used for gas exchange, locomotion and attachment Page 1
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM III NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Hemichordates - Acorn worms and pterobronchs - 3 part body - Proboscis, collar, & trunk - Pharyngeal slits (feeding and gas exchange) The Chordates Characteristics of Chordates - Bilateral symmetry - Pharyngeal slits - Dorsal, hollow nerve cord - A ventral heart - A tail that extends beyond the anus - Notochord - A dorsal supporting rod - A flexible rod of gelatinous material that serves as support Urochordates - The tunicates - Marine, sessile organisms - Larvae have a notochord - Pharyngeal basket - Some are colonial The Vertebrates - Vertebral Column - Rigid internal skeleton - Two pairs of appendages - Anterior skull with enlarged brain - Internal organs suspended in the coelom - Well developed circulatory system Evolution of the Vertebrates Jawless Fishes Gnathostomes Page 2
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM III NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Jawless fishes - Hagfish and lampreys - Cartilaginous skeleton - Feed on dead and living organisms - Freshwater and Marine environments Notochord Vertebral Column (Embryo) (Adult) The evolution of jaws improved nutrition. Jawless fishes - Evolved from gill arches Early jawed fishes - Anterior gill arches became modified - Grasping, chewing, increased variety of food - Earliest species were the placoderms Modern jawed fishes ***Placoderms – first jawed fishes*** Chondrichthyans - The cartilaginous fishes - Evolution of fins - unjointed appendages - increased mobility - Thick rubbery skin - Includes the sharks, skates, and rays Ray-finned fishes (24,000-25,000 species identified) - Bony fishes - Internal skeleton made of bone Page 3
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM III NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 - Covered with smooth flat scales (stream-lined movement) - Lungfish – had lung-like scales as well as gills - Swim bladders – organs for buoyancy How do vertebrates colonize land? The Lobe-finned fishes and Lungfishes - Lungfish - Lung-like structures - Able to breathe air temporarily - Dried up river beds - Lobe-finned fishes - Jointed fins - Able to move to land - Waddle to another water source Tetrapods Transition to Land - Jointed fins evolved into walking legs. - Organisms began to use terrestrial food sources.
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Exam 3 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM III NOTES Dr. Harmych Section...

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