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Exam 1 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM I NOTES Dr. Harmych Section 2...

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BIOL 2150 – EXAM I NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Exam I Notes Chapter 1- An Evolutionary Framework for Biology How do Biologists Investigate Life? Asking and Answering “How” and “Why” The Scientific Method A process of using common sense and logic to solve problems. 5 steps - Same method is used to solve a Sudoku puzzle. STEP 1: Making Observations - Defining the problem (see what’s happening). - State the problem in the form of a question. - Confine the problem to a single idea or variable. STEP 2: Asking Questions - Collecting information Internet - Information is used to form a hypothesis. - Many sources of information Collect information carefully. It’s okay to question data; even the theory of relativity can be questioned. STEP 3: Formulate Hypothesis - An educated guess to answer the problem you have stated - A tentative answer to a problem - Testable STEP 4: Making Predictions - Based on the hypothesis, contain predictions we make. - Predict what variables are involved in the problem: ~ changing temperatures, water pollution, habitat species, insect migration, etc. Page 1
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM I NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 STEP 5: Testing Hypothesis - Hypothesizes are often made with little information. - Use experiments to test the hypothesis. - Collect more information. - Can prove or disprove the hypothesis. * Always another question to ask Types of Experiments 1. Controlled : All factors are controlled except the one in question. 2. Comparative : Scientists make predictions about patterns that should exist in nature. Pieter Johnson (student biologist) was shown a collection of Pacific tree frogs with extra legs growing out of frog bodies. Why does this occur? Is there something in these ponds that causes frogs to develop such abnormalities? Collect Information - Frogs come from a pond in an agricultural region where pesticides are used. - Abandoned mercury mines can cause contamination of nearby water sources. Hypothesis - Deformities are caused by environmental water pollution due to pesticide or heavy metal contamination. Experiment Set-up Page 2
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM I NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 - Begin by identifying a small test area of ponds where abnormal tree frogs have been found. - Collect and analyze water samples from the ponds. - Census the organisms in the ponds. - Look for a correlation between the presence of abnormal and the characteristics of the pond. - Frogs were found in 13 of the 35 ponds studied. - Frogs with abnormalities were found in 4 of the 13. Water Analysis : In the 13 ponds studied, ponds showed no difference in water pollution. - The 4 ponds with abnormal frogs also contained a population infected with flatworms (Ribeiroia). Conclusion
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Exam 1 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM I NOTES Dr. Harmych Section 2...

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