Exam 2 notes

Exam 2 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM II NOTES Dr. Harmych Section...

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BIOL 2150 – EXAM II NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Exam II Notes The Evolution of Diversity Chapter 26- Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains Chapter 27- The Origin and Diversification of the Eukaryotes Chapter 28- Plants without Seeds: From Sea to Land Chapter 29- The Evolution of Seed Plants Chapter 30- Fungi: Recyclers, Pathogens, Parasites, and Plant Partners Multicellular Unicellular Animals Fungi Plants Protists Bacteria Archaea Similarities of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Both conduct glycolysis. - Both replicate DNA semiconservatively. - Both have DNA that code for proteins. - Both produce proteins using transcription and translation. - Both have plasma membranes and ribosomes in abundance. Differences of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes - Prokaryotes do not have a cytoskeleton. - Reproduce by fission. - Prokaryotic DNA is circular. - Prokaryotes do not have membrane enclosed organelles. Life is divided into 3 Domains: Bacteria (Prokarya), Archaea, and Eukarya Page 1
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM II NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 Where do Prokaryotes live? - The most successful of all creatures on Earth. - Found in every type of habitat. The number of E. coli in a single human intestinal tract outnumbers the number of humans that have ever lived!!! - Take on 3 Common Shapes (See EXAM I NOTES for illustrations): - Coccus - Bacillus - Helical (Spiral) Prokaryotes Form Complex Communities Forming a Bio-film Keys to Success - Cell Walls - Contain Peptidoglycan - Gram staining - Unique modes of locomotion - Reproduce asexually - Binary fission - Unique methods of communication - Diverse metabolic pathways - Anaerobic/aerobic - Nitrogen and sulfur metabolism Diversity of Archaea There is enough biochemical difference between Archaea and Bacteria to create two separate domains. The Protists = Microbial Eukaryotes - Eukaryotes that are neither land plants, animals, nor fungi. Page 2
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BIOL 2150 – EXAM II NOTES – Dr. Harmych – Section 2 – MW 4:00-5:40 - Most are microscopic, but some are large. - Many make up plankton. - Free-floating, microscopic, aquatic organisms - Phytoplankton – photosynthetic plankton - Primary producers - Diatoms – 1/5 of carbon fixation on Earth - Some are endosymbionts - Endosymbiosis – a condition in which two organisms live together, one inside the other. - Some are pathogenic. Plasmodium – parasite of human red blood cells that causes malaria. Trypanosomes – sleeping sickness causing parasite spread by Tsetse fly. Dinoflagellates – causes red tides The Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells - The origin of a flexible cell surface. - The origin of a cytoskeleton. - The origin of a nuclear envelope. - The appearance of digestive vesicles, or vacuoles. - The endosymbiotic acquisition of certain organelles.
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Exam 2 notes - BIOL 2150 EXAM II NOTES Dr. Harmych Section...

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