Reproductive Pathology 2017.pdf - 12/1/2017 Learning...

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12/1/20171Reproductive Pathology2017Diane Robillard RN DNPAugusta University College of NursingLearning ObjectivesDefine “androgen”.State the source of androgen production in males and females.Define “cryptorchidism”.Describe 2 major complications.Define “erectile dysfunction”.Name the most common causes.Define “benign prostatic hypertrophy”.Name the clinical symptoms and possible complications.Know the risk factors for prostate cancer and name 2 recommended screening tests.Define “endometriosis” and pathology.Understand PCOS and associated symptoms and pathologyDefine “menometrorrhagiaUnderstand the normal menstrual cycle bleeding pattern.Name the risk factors for breast cancer, including genetic mutations.Define “menopause”.Name 3 conditions common to the post-menopausal woman, signs and symptomsState the most common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease.Know which STI that antibiotic ophthalmic ointment prevents in newborns.Know which STI has a classic “strawberry” appearance of the cervix.Know which STI is caused by an overgrowth of yeast due to the use of antibiotic therapy.Know which STI is the most common, can cause genital warts, can lead to cervical cancer, and has vaccine options availableTable of contents:1. Chapter 39: Disorders of the Male2. Chapter 40: Disorders of the Female3. Chapter 41: Sexually transmitted infectionsChapter 39: XYDisorders of the Male Genitourinary SystemOverview:Male genitourinary structural and functional disorders canaffect:1. urine elimination2. sexual function3. fertilityMale genitourinary pathology includes the penis, scrotum, testesand prostate gland.Pathology can be congenital (birth), aging process, infection,cancer, traumaMale hormonal and reproductivefunctionTesticular Function:1.Production of male sex hormone, androgens:Testosterone,Dihydrotestosterone, and androstenedione.2.Chart 39-1: Main Actions of Testosterone-Testosterone develops male characteristics-Promotes development of sperm, spermatogenesis3.Prostate glandsecretes fluid during ejaculation aids in PH ofsemen, andis essential to successful fertilizationof the ovum
12/1/20172Hypothalamic/Pituitary gland:role in testicular functionGnRH: gonadotropin releasing hormone byhypothalamusFSH and LH are produced by pituitaryAll combine to help develop sperm under the influenceof TestosteroneFSH, LH, and Testosterone production remain mostlyunchanging during adulthood (UNLIKE femalemenopause) thus men are fertile longerMale sexual functionProcess involves erection, emission, ejaculation, anddetumescenceInteraction between autonomic-mediated spinal cordreflexes, higher neural centers in the brain, and thevascular systemErection=increased flow of blood into penisEmission = contraction of vas deferens and expulsion ofsperm into the urethraEjaculation = expulsion of semen from urethraDetumescence = penile relaxationErectile Dysfunction (ED)Inability to achieve and maintain erection forsatisfactory intercourseMultiple pathologies: Anxiety, depression, stroke, spinalcord injury, neurologic diseases, uncontrolled diabetes,hormonal changes, medications, street drugs,hypertension,LOTS of causes: think neuro and vascular changesED is a marker for cardiovascular diseases in men,requires follow-up for comorbiditiesPathology of the maleBalanitis: local inflammation of the glans

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
estrogen, Human papillomavirus, Priapism

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