Environmental

Environmental - Environmental Preservation -Yellowstone...

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Environmental Preservation -Yellowstone National Park -New York -Adirondack -3million acres state owned/ 3million privately owned but heavily regulated -“Environmental Movement” -focuses on human action Regulation and voluntary action - US Environmental Legislation -International treaties Science -a way of understanding the world -depends on experimentation or observation -based on repeatability of measurement Scientific Question -must have an answer that can be tested by experimentation or observation Scientific Concepts -data -the results of an experiment or observation -often numerical value -the “facts” of science -depend on scientific theory -scientific law -generalized description of data -describes what happens but does not explain -can change as data improve -may be restricted to specific domains of temperature, pressure, velocity, etc. -scientific theory -explanation of WHY something happens -best available explanation of data -can change as data improve -may be restricted to specific domains of temperature, pressure, velocity, etc. -scientific model - representation of a situation -can be physical or mathematical -often restricted in application -not usually a scale up or down -USEFUL Sound Science -observations have been verified -conclusions follow from data -conclusions fit all data -author does not over generalize -work has received peer review
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Ecosystems -a system is a set of parts that act together as a whole -an ecosystem represents environmental scientists’ attempt to isolate “system” for study -the living and non-living things interacting within a specific area -usually identified by relative uniformity (meadow, forest, lake, city, etc) Ecosystem Components -abiotic (non-living) component -biotic (living) component Ecotone -transition between 2 distinct ecosystems -may contain so many unique species that it would be appropriate to consider it an ecosystem in its own right Estuary -fresh/sea water transition, usually significantly constrained by land features Trophic levels -PRODUCERS -CONSUMERS Energy - the ability to do work (potential (stored), kinetic (moving), heat) -reactions occur which decrease energy and increase disorder (entropy) -to create order you must use energy -in photosynthesis, energy from the sun allowed plants to take carbon dioxide and water to make more ordered, higher energy sugar -use of sugar restores lower energy and higher disorder releases energy Matter -matter takes up space and has a mass -atoms, molecules, compounds -can be organic or inorganic -atoms are basic elements of chemistry -covalent, molecular bonds (water) -ionic bond ionic compounds (salt) Chemical Nomenclature -Atoms have one or 2 letter abbreviations -Subscripts give number of atoms of each kind in a molecule or a ratio in an ionic compound -chemical equation reflects chemical reactions -in chemical equations, numbers before molecules indicate ratio of molecules in a reaction Bonds among atoms -ionic: atoms gain or lose electrons to become charged atoms which hold together
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course GSP T07.5005 taught by Professor Pataki during the Fall '08 term at NYU.

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Environmental - Environmental Preservation -Yellowstone...

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