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Percep_Study_questions_test1

Percep_Study_questions_test1 - Study Questions...

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Study Questions Brain/Neurophysiology 1. Briefly describe the functions of (a) dendrites, (b) axons, and (c) synapses. Dendrites receive the action potential. Axons are the part of a neuron down which the action potential travels. Synapses are the spaces between neurons into which neurotransmitters are released from one neuron to the next. 2. What is an action potential? An action potential originates in the cell body and travels down the axon. Action potentials don’t change in strength but rather change in firing rate. The action potentials can either inhibit or excite a neuron. 3. (a) What is the basic function of a sensory receptor neuron? (b) Briefly describe the “law of specific nerve energies”. Sensory receptor neurons convert external energy into electrical energy. The law of specific nerve energies states that specific neurons only fire for specific senses. 4. (a) Briefly describe how neurons communicate with each other. (b) What are the 2 kinds of synaptic messages? (c) What are the advantages of a chemical synapse? Neurons communicate with each other through a chemical message through the synapse. The 2 kind of messages are excitatory (increase firing rate) or inhibitory (decrease firing rate). Advantages are that in a chemical synapse there is a 1 way transmission from pre synaptic neuron to post synaptic neuron. Also, plasticity occurs in amount and kinds of neurotransmitters. 5. (a) What is spontaneous activity? (b) How does changing the stimulus intensity affect nerve firing? (c) Does a neuron fire the same number action potentials each time it is stimulates? Neurons are always firing at a baseline. Spontaneous activity is the “white noise” in firing. For example, a neuron won’t consistently fire at 10 baseline, it will vary but in the same range. Stimulus intensity can increase or decrease firing rate. Each time a neuron is stimulated, it won’t fire the same number of action potential. 6. (a) What is the white matter of the brain mainly composed of? (b) What is the gray matter mainly composed of? (c) Briefly explain what kinds of cellular activities take place in each type of matter. White matter is composed of axons so it performs inter communication only. Gray matter is where the neurons are so this is where nearly everything having to do with neurons takes place. 7. Name and locate the 4 brain lobes. The frontal lobe is in the front of the brain and deals with planning and social thinking. The occipital lobe is in the back of the brain and deals with most vision functions. The parietal lobe is on the top of the brain and deals with a lot of motor and movement functions. The temporal lobe is in the lower center of the brain and deals with most auditory and timing functions.
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8. Define (a) sulcus (b) gyrus A sulcus is an indent in the brain. A gyrus is the folds of the brain that stick out.
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