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Unformatted text preview: Name Last (as on TCard) First (as on TCard) Preferred First (optional) Student # Signature UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science DECEMBER 2013 EXAMINATIONS HMB473H1F Exercise and Mental Health Duration —— 2 hours No Aids Permitted This exam is out of 46 marks. There are 4 short answer/essay questions with marks for each question indicated. Instructions: 1. Write your full name and student number on every page of the exam. 2. Answer all questions using complete, concise sentences and writing leginy using ink only in the lined space provided on this paper. Good luck! Invigilators are not permitted to interpret questions for individual students. If you think that a question is ambiguous, answer as you understand it, then make a note here. Please be specific. Page 1 of 7 HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013—14 Name Student # Question 1 (16 marks). Exercise is known to promote the release of endocannabinoids, which, amongst many other effects, may mediate part of the "runner’s high” feeling. Exercise is now under study as a adjunct treatment for bipolar disorder. a 1.5 Figure Legend: Effects of Nabilone, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on oedema (inflammation EA 1‘0 induced by a local injection of an inflammatory gE cytokine). From Conti et al, Br. J. Pharmacol. 2002 95 January; 135(1): 181—187. 0.0 0.75 3.5 as wbfione (mg kg") 1a) What do the results shown in the figure above imply about the potential mechanisms of the effects of exercise on bipolar disorder? Provide evidence that these mechanisms may be involved in bipolar disorder. 1b) Considering only the above figure, and the accepted knowledge that exercise induces endocannabinoid release, what major confound would exist in concluding that 'exercise alleviates bipolar disorder through the action of endocannabinoids’ (you may use figures or diagrams to illustrate the confound) Page 2 of 7 HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013-14 Name Student # Page 3 of 7 HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013—14 Name Student# Question 2 (6 marks). At the request of the physical activity program coordinator from your service learning organization, write an application for funding to expand the program. Be sure to include the benefits of the physical activity program for your client population, citing scientific evidence, and the challenges faced that could be addressed by the funding. Page 4 of 7 HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013-14 Name Student# Question 3 (8 marks) In chapter 7 of Spark Peter Provet, director of Odyssey House, is quoted: "I strongly believe that exercise can serve as an antidote and as a type of inoculation against addiction.” Describe the physiological and behavioural evidence (in humans or animals) that supports Provet’s statement. Page 5 of 7 M— HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013-14 . Name Student # Question 4 (16 marks) Govindarajan et al (PNAS 103; 13208—13), recently observed that overexpressing the gene that codes for BDNF in mice results in reduced susceptibility to chronic stress—induced depressive behavioural symptoms. Two figures from their paper are shown. D -Unstressed bm “at” * 5w EIJStressed it A * £600 A *soo ‘g 506 a a 3“” 5-400 g 300 0- : 2w 3 m g +ua¢mssedmm g a 100 -a-StressedConuoi “ 0 gm 050100150200250300350400450 :5: i am Distance from soma- (pm: 1 U 00 u d—UnstressedTransgenic "" 90° ' -O-Slressed1’ransgenic -800 Contra! Transgenic g m l Genotype a we I . . 500 Left: Effect of BDNF overexpreSSIon on chronic stress ,3 m I induced levels of plasma corticosterone I Right: Effect of BDNF overexpression on chronic 10° stress-induced changes in dendritic length in the o so we 15!} zoo as: 300 350 no a Mean Dbmmhommum) hippocampus 4a) What can you conclude from the figures? Based on the results, what may be the mechanisms of the anti-depressant like effects of BDNF overexpression? 4b) In the same paper, the authors found that the overexpression of BDNF increases anxiety like behaviours. What could be the mechanism behind this effect? Be sure to referto appropriate brain regions Page 6 of 7 HMB473H1F Final Exam 2013-14 Name Student # Total Marks = 46; Total Pages = 7 Page 7 of 7 ...
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