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Unformatted text preview: Name Last (as on TCard) First (as on TCard) Preferred First (optional) Student # Signature UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science Fail“ APRIL 2014 EXAMINATIONS A HMB305H1S Scientific Perspectives Duration — 2 hours No Aids Allowed This exam is out of 80 marks. Instructions: Part 1- Multiple Choice (15 questions worth 2 marks each, total 30 marks) 1.1 Answer the multiple choice questions on the scantron. 1.2 Refer to the "MARKING INSTRUCTIONS” on the scantron for information on filling it out (e.g., use HB pencil; no stray marks anywhere on the scantron). 1.3 In the “FORM” box on the scantron, indicate which “FORM” (A, B, C or D) is indicated on the top of your exam page. 1.4 Fill in SIGNATURE, SUBJECT and DATE on the scantron. 1.5 Correctly bubble in your STUDENT NUMBER, LAST NAME and INITIALS on the scantron. Part 2- Short Answer (6 questions worth 50 marks total) 2.1 Answer all questions using complete, concise sentences and writing leginy using ink only in the booklets provided. Good luck! Invigilators are not permitted to interpret questions for individual students. If you think that a question is ambiguous, answer as you understand it, then make a note here. Please be specific. HMIB305HIS Final Exam 2013-14 FORM A Name Student # Part 1--MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one answer that best answers the question. 15 questions worth 2 marks each, total 30 marks. 1) Brenda Milner is a neuroscientist who has made significant contributions to the field of cognitive neuropsychology. What is one of her many contributions? A) IQ testing B) phrenology C) consolidation D) habituation 2) Conrad is a graduate student in aDrosophilalab. He is screening for maternal genes affecting the anteroposterior pattern of the embryo. What describes his research findings? A) A male homozygous recessive for a mutation in a maternal-effect gene will yield 50% mutant progeny when crossed to a female that is heterozygous for the same mutation. B) A female homozygous recessive for a mutation in a maternal-effect gene will yield 100% mutant progeny when crossed to a wild—type male. C) A male heterozygous for a mutation in a maternal-effect gene will yield 25% mutant progeny when crossed to a female that is heterozygous for the same mutation. D) A female homozygous recessive for a mutation in a maternal-effect gene will yield 50% mutant progeny when crossed to a male that is heterozygous for the same mutation. 3) Eric Kandel was the ultimate reductionist who used a simple, tractable system to study the biology of learning and memory. What influenced his Nobel prize-winning career? A) graduate work in psychoanalysis B) medical training in neurology C) research studies of Ivan Pavlov D) childhood interest in neuroscience 4) Ann is a fourth-year undergraduate thesis student working in a Drosophila lab. She is investigating anteroposten'or pattern formation in the Drosophila embryo, and decides to cross a wing]ess+ mutant female fly with a bicoid" mutant male fly. What most likely describes the phenotype of the resulting progeny? A) deletions in each segment only B) deletions in alternating segments only C) lack of anterior structures and deletions in alternating segments D) lack of anterior structures and deletions in each segment Page 1 of 5 HIVIB305H1 S Final Exam 2013—14 FORM A Name Student # 5) What is NOT a common feature that characterizes the scientific successes of Anne McLaren, John Gurdon, and Shinya Yamanaka? A) asked complex questions B) acknowledged their debts C) shared their expertise D) followed their own paths 6) Jessica is an undergraduate student writing a literature review on the evolutionary importance of recombination suppression between sex chromosomes in the plant Silene latifolia. What best describes her research findings? A) Y-linked genes are usually expressed at higher levels than their X—linked counterparts. B) Y chromosome degeneration is slow due to restricted haploid pollen gene expression. C) Y-linked alleles accumulate more deleterious mutations due to less efficient selection. D) The vast majority of X-linked genes have been lost from the Y chromosome. 7) Wes, a fourth-year undergraduate research project student, is studying the mechanisms underlying habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Apb/sia. What most likely describes his findings? A) increased calcium (Ca2+) entry in presynaptic terminals B) stronger excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPS) C) caused by postsynaptic depression D) reduction in presynaptic glutamate release 8) What has NOT contributed to Christiane Nusslein-Volhard’s career as a Nobel Prize-winning scientist? A) collaborative relationship with Eric Wieschaus B) post-doctoral training in a genetics lab C) graduate training in a developmental biology lab D) working with a famous insect embryologist 9) Michael is a summer student working in a C. elegans lab studying programmed cell death. What features does C. elegans possess that makes it a good model organism to study this phenomenon? A) genome size identical to that of humans B) ability to self-fertilize C) consistent somatic cell number — 959 cells in the male, 1031 cells in the hermaphrodite D) short life cycle of 10 days Page 2 of 5 HIVIB305HIS Final Exam 2013-14 FORM A Name Student # 10) Alex, a cognitive neuroscientist, is evaluating the condition of patients with lesions of the left frontal lobe. What would likely NOT be affected in these patients? A) crystallized intelligence B) fluid intelligence C) problem solving D) phonemic fluency 11) Ishita is a Master’s student in neuroscience. For her research project, she is examining late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mammalian hippocampus, specifically the CA1 synapse. What would NOT describe her observations? A) CREB activation B) synaptic growth C) increased PKA (protein kinase A) activity D) binding of 5-HT (serotonin) to receptors 12) What characterizes the research of John Gurdon who pushed the concept of nuclear transfer cloning to pave the way for cloning in mammals? A) used frog and sheep cells for his nuclear transfer experiments B) found that intestinal epithelial cell nuclei could be used as differentiated donor nuclei C) feund that sperm cytoplasm induced a reversal of cell differentiation after nuclear transfer D) used nuclei carrying a deletion in a transfer RNA (tRNA) gene as a marker 13) What did NOT contribute to Shinya Yamanaka’s research on induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells? A) four master regulatory genes often involved in pathways leading to cancer B) c-Myc, Klf4, 0ct4, and Sox9 are four genes essential for induction C) conditions required to create iPS cells from adult tissues D) use of transposon vectors to insert the required genes 14) Ramina, a fourth-year undergraduate student, is writing a report on floral mechanisms in plants that promote pollen export. What information would she NOT have come across during the course of her research? A) The avoidance of pollen-stigma interference benefits paternal fitness more than maternal fitness. B) Without pollen-stigma interference, the same position for male and female sex organs can maximize pollen dispersal. C) Pollen-stigma interference allows evolution to anticipate a population’s future reproductive requirements. D) Pollen-stigma interference can be reduced through herkogamy, a spatial separation of female and male sex organs. Page 3 of 5 HMLB305HIS Final Exam 2013—14 FORMA Name Student # 15) What experiments did Anne McLaren perform to link genetics with mouse development? A) transfer of cultured post-implantation mouse embryos into uterus of mother B) generation of mouse embryonic germ cell lines to look at X-inactivation C) generation of mouse chimeras to look at coat colour pattern and other phenotypes D) purification of the sex-determining H-Y antigen in mouse Page 4 of 5 HMB305HlS Final Exam 2013-14 Name Student # Short Answer (6 questions worth 50 marks total) Answer all questions using complete, concise sentences and writing legibly using ink only in the booklets provided. 1. (8 marks) Christiane Nusslein—Volhard used Drosophz'la as a model system to elucidate the genetic mechanisms of development in the early embryo. Describe in detail the experiments that she performed and the results that she obtained that lead to her discoveries. Use relevant examples from the lectures and readings, and include the application of her findings to human biology. 2. (10 marks) Craig Venter won the race to sequence the human genome, and his role in this historic accomplishment has been both vilified and praised. Although his autobiography offers a fascinating perspective on one of the major scientific discoveries of all time, there is still a disheartening story about the politics of big science. Describe in detail, using relevant examples from the book, how politics played a role in the scientific career of Craig Venter? ' 3. (8 marks) Both Anne McLaren and John Gurdon were pioneers in the field of stem cell biology and animal cloning. Using examples from the lecture and readings, describe how the research of Anne McLaren and John Gurdon lead to mammalian cloning and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) experiments. 4. (8 marks) Eric Kandel used a simple model (Apbzsia) to study learning and memory at the cellular and molecular level. Describe in detail how spaced training can lead to long-term sensitization of the gill—withdrawal reflex in Aplysia, resulting in long-term memory storage. 5. (6 marks) Brenda Milner’s research has focused on learning and memory functions in the frontal and temporal lobes of humans. Compare and contrast declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit) memory, giving examples of each. 6. (10 marks) Women in science have ofien faced a myriad of challenges and prejudices that serve as obstacles in their career. Drawing on the lectures and the readings in the course, compare and contrast the experiences and views of the female scientists discussed in the class. Total Pages = 5 Total Marks = 80 Page 5 of S ...
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