W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Chapter 5Organizational Culture ofSchools
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Organizational CultureDefinitions:Henry Mintzberg (1989) refers to culture as organization ideology, or “the traditions and beliefs of an organization that distinguish it from other organizations and infuse a certain life into the skeleton of its structure.”Stephen Robbins (1998) defines organization culture as “a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations.Edgar Schein (1992), however, argues that the culture should be reserved for a “deeper level of basic assumptions, values, and beliefs”that become shared and taken for granted as the organization continues to be successful.Our general definition of organizational culture is a system ofshared orientations that hold the unit together and give it a distinctive identity.Orientations are values, norms, and tacit assumptions.
Levels of Organizational CultureDeepSuperficialAbstractConcreteTacit Assumptions--Abstract Premises about•Nature of human nature•Nature of human relationships•Nature of truth and reality•Relationships with the environmentValues--conceptions of the desirable•Openness•Trust•Cooperation•Intimacy•TeamworkNorms--•Support your colleagues•Don’t criticize your superiors•Handle your own problems•Be supportive of students•Be available to get your students extra help
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Organizational CultureCulture as NormsExamples of Norms•Never criticize colleagues in public•Support your colleagues•Handle your own discipline problems•Be available for your students after school•Support the principal•Get to school early in the morning•Be in the hall by your room as classes change
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Organizational CultureCulture as Shared ValuesExamples of Core Values•Commitment to the the school•Commitment to teaching•Cooperation and teamwork•Trust and group loyalty•Egalitarianism•Serve your students•High academic achievement
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011Organizational CultureCulture as Tacit AssumptionsExamples of Tacit Assumptions•Truth ultimately comes from teachers themselves.•Teachers are capable of making decisions in the best interests of students.•Truth is determined through debate, which often produces conflict and the testing of ideas in an open forum.
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- Sociology, W. K. Hoy