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CCJS352Exam1Review - CCJS 352 Exam 1 CHAPTER 1 1...

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CCJS 352 Exam 1 CHAPTER 1 1. Psychoactive drugs -influence the functioning of the brain and hence our behavior/experience 2. Illicit drugs -heroine, cocaine, marijuana, ecstasy, LSD, ketamine, and GHB 3. Licit drugs-pyschoactive substances as well but LEGAL, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine 4. Drug dependence -a compulsive need to take the drug; the drug takes a central role in the user’s life 5. Drug -a chemical substance that when taken into the body, alters the structure or functioning of the body in some way, excluding those nutrients considered to be related to normal functioning 6. Instrumental use -the use of a drug for a purpose rather than just getting “high” 7. Recreational use -the use of a drug to get a “high” or other pleasurable effect 8. Drug misuse -taking a drug (prescription or non) in an inappropriate manner 9. Drug abuse-taking a drug which causes physical, mental, or social impairment 10. Licit-Instrumental / Illicit-Instrumental / Licit-Recreational / Licit-Instrumental 11. Subcutaneous -underneath the skin 12. Sublingual -applied under the tongue 13. Transdermal patch -a device attached to the skin that slowly delivers the drug through skin absorption 14. Biotransformation -the process of changing the molecular structure of a drug into forms that make it easier to be excreted from the body 15. Synergism -the combination of drugs that’s reaction exceeds the effect of either drug when administered alone 16. Behavioral tolerance -taking the drug under the same circumstances (same bedroom, same room temp etc.) increases ones tolerance 17. Cross-tolerance -the use of one drug can increase the tolerance for another drug as well (alcohol and barbiturates) 18. Physical dependence-the idea that the drug abuser continues to take a drug to avoid physical withdrawal 19. Psychological dependence-the drug abuser is motivated by a craving for the pleasurable effects of the drug 20. Substance dependence -an individual with significant signs of a dependent relationship upon a psychoactive drug 21. Substance abuse -an individual who continues to take a drug despite the fact that the behavior is causing them specific problems 22. Toxicity -the psychical or psychological harm a drug might present to a user 23. Acute toxicity -psychical/psychological harm a drug might present to a user immediately or soon after being ingested 24. Chronic Toxicity -physical/psychological harm a drug might present to a user over a long period of time 25. TRENDS 26. Men slightly outnumber women in emergency department (ED) episodes
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27. A dramatic increase in the amount of cocaine related ED episodes, since the 1980’s and the popularity of cocaine and crack cocaine 28. Increase of heroin ED episodes as the purity increased in the 1990’s and the ability to use heroin without a needle 29. Recently an increase in ED episodes concerning ecstasy, ketamine, LSD, GHB, and methamphetamines especially 30. Also recently an increase in ED episodes concerning oxycodone (Percodan) and hydrocodone (Vicodin) 31. Effective dose
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