All of notes for test 1 - 1/17 Pre Telescope Observation...

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1/17 Pre Telescope Observation and Accomplishment (2.1-2.5) 1. Ancient “naked-eye” observers noted 5 objects that moved irregular (forward and backward) relative to the fixed stars. Perplexing, because skies thought to be unchanging. Called these wanderers planets- mercury, Venus, mars, Jupiter, and Saturn 2. Greeks were first to take up challenge of describing their motion religion/philosophies beliefs of Aristotle (others) had heavens being “perfect”, so motion had to be uniform and circular (perfect geometric form) Earth was considered center of Universe(geocentrism ). 3. Ptolemy (2 nd century) devised epicycle (circle) system which remained popular for 1400 years 4. Copernicus (early 16 th century) revisited earlier idea of Aristarchus (300 BC) of Sun centered system (heliocentrism), but continued with planets orbiting in circles. 5. Tycho Brahe offered compromise system of planets orbiting Sun, sun and moon orbiting Earth. Still didn’t quite fully explain unique movements (Late 16 th century) 6. Kepler (Early 17 th century) finally formulated correct orbital movements as ellipses, not circles. 7. Galileo “confirmed” heliocentrism by telescopically discovering Jupiter moons. 8. Newton (Late 17 th Century proposed gravitational force keeping planets orbiting the sun. 1/25 2 nd reading on planets and perceptual psychology: 1. eye has law threshold (high sensitivity) for seeing linear features and simple geometric forms eye/mind tend to make order/regularity out of patterns via process called summation of sensation sensory receptors, combined to made interpret of perception. In astronomy today, however, were limited to one (our eyes) and that can be problematic when viewing unknown objects? 2. Other effects produced including subjective contouring -tendency toward figure completion ex. Pie slice. Orientation, and ambiguous figures (open to one’s interpretation 2 nd reading Final Thoughts 1. summation of sensations -order/regularity out of patterns 2. Subjective Contours - figures completion/ pie slices 3. Ambiguous Figures - necker cube, vase vs. face, Rorschach “ink blot” pattern open to interpretation based on the viewer
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2 . Revelation peeps - used by P. Lowell to describe brief glimpses of good viewing when the atmosphere became calm, steady, ideal, cords 3 . Scientific use of imagination we “see” with our minds, not our eyes. Helps to know what you’re looking at in order to properly interpret it. Keys to Himalayan’s of Venus Reading Demonstrates difficulty in seeing
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course UI 416 taught by Professor Cwick during the Spring '08 term at Southeast Missori State University.

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All of notes for test 1 - 1/17 Pre Telescope Observation...

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