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Synaptic Transmission 2-4 through 2-13

Synaptic Transmission 2-4 through 2-13 - Synaptic...

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Frontal: Cognition (Thinking) Temporal: Hearing Parietal: Language Occipital: Vision Sulci and Gyri: Sulci are the valleys, The gyri are the bumps Synaptic Transmission 1. Cells of the Nervous System: a. Glial cells (meaning glue): cells that help to hold neurons together and help neurons communicate with one another. i. Phagocytes : Scavenge dead or injured cells. 1. Identical to cells in the immune system. ii. Oligodendrocyte : 1. Form Myelin Sheath. 2. Wrap around fibers of nerves providing insulation so the nerves can conduct electrical signals. iii. Astrocytes : a. Provide structural support, b. Development, c. Blood-brain barrier, d. Chemical buffering. 1. Without the support the brain would collapse on its self. 2. They wrap around blood vessels in the brain thus larger sized bacteria or toxins cannot get into the brain. 3. Monitors the levels of calcium for example and recognize if there is too much and knows when to get rid of some. b. Neurons : Specialized cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information. i. Major structural component 1. Dendrite (means branch) : Fibers that receive signals from other neurons 2. Sona (means body): Contains the nucleus and is involved in the summation of incoming signals. 3. Axon : Fibers that carry signals from the cell body to other neurons. Chemical signals turns into electrical signals and is carried. Insulated by the oligodendroctyes 2. The Action Potential a. A rapid change in the membrane potential of a neuron: the basis of neural communication. i. Resting membrane potential : the difference in electrical charge across the membrane of an inactive neuron. Represents the potential energy. ii. Depolarization : During an action potential, Na+ (sodium) channels open and Na+ ions enter the cell. iii. Repolarization : Na+ influx leads to activation of K+ (potassium) channels and K+ ions exit the cell, and the resting membrane potential is re-established. b. Saltatory Conduction : The action potential is actively maintained along the length of the Axon. i. Myelin Sheath : insulating substance that increases conduction speed along the axon. ii. Nodes of Ranvier : Gaps in the myelin sheath that allow for saltatory conduction of the action potential. 3. The Synapse : a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. a. Comprised of the presynaptic membrane, the synaptic cleft, and the postsynaptic membrane. i. Neurotransmitter : Chemical signal released into the synaptic cleft.
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ii. Receptor : Proteins on the cell surface that recognize specific neurotransmitters, leading to a postsynaptic response. 1. Agonists and Antagonists iii. Postsynaptic Potential: a change in the postsynaptic membrane potential that results from activation of a receptor by a neurotransmitter.
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