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Unformatted text preview: Motivation and D rive Theory 1. Motivation involves goal-orientated behavior 2. Many theorists view motivational forces in terms of drives (drive theory), an internal state of tension that motivated an organism to engage in activities that should reduce tension 3. When individuals experience a drive (such as hunger), they are motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction (eating) which reduces the drive and restores physiological equilibrium (feeling full). 4. However, drive theories cannot explain all motivation I ncentive theories 1. Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states. Proponents of this theory would argue that even though you are full, you still get that ice cream when you hear the t ruck coming down the road on a hot summer day. The ice cream is an incentive, an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior. 2. Drive theories are often termed PUSH theories because they emphasize how INTERNAL states of tension push people in certain directions. 3. Incentive theories are often termed PULL theories because they emphasize how EXTERNAL states those that lie outside the organism in the environment act as the source of motivation. Evolutionary Theories 1. Theories of motivation, according to evolutionary theorists, rest on motives such as affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drives in terms of their adaptive value. 2. Evolutionary analyses of motivation are based on the presmise that motives can best be understood in terms of the adaptive problems they solved for our hunter-gatherer ancestors. 3. Dominant males intimidate other male rivals for sexual access and females prefer mating with dominant (reproductively strong) males. 4. Most motivational theorists agree that humans motives can be divided into two major categories. a. Biological Motives those that originate in bodily needs i. Hunger, thirst, sex, sleep and rest, aggression, excretory, temperature, and activity motives.. b. Social Motives those that originate in social experiences i. Achievement, autonomy, dominance, order, play, and nurturance motives. Biological Motives 1. Hunger a deceptive, complex motivational system. a. Research shows that people continue to experience hunger even after their stomachs have been removed out of medical necessity. b. Theories of hunger focus on the brain, blood sugar levels, hormones, and the environment. Brain Regulation 1. The hypothalamus seems to be largely in control in the experience of hunger, specifically that of the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and the ventromedical nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). 2. The LH and the VMH are the brains on-off switches for the control of hunger....
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- Spring '08