Immunology Study Guide - Immunology Review Questions 1...

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Immunology Review Questions: 1. Compare and contrast the innate and adaptive immune defenses (consider the particular cell types and mechanisms). Innate immunity- if the epithelial barrier is damaged, a highly efficient local and systemic response ( inflammation ) is mobilized to limit the extent of the damage, protect against infection, and initiate repair. The natural barrier and inflammation confer innate resistance and protection. Capable of rapid responses to diverse infections. Includes barriers and antimicrobial secretions (e.g. skin) and non-specific immune responses (e.g. phagocytosis, inflammation) adaptive immunity- inflammation associated with infection usually initiates an adaptive process that results in long term and very effective immunity to the infecting microorganism. Adaptive immunity is relatively slow to develop but has memory and more rapidly targets and eradicates a second infection. Specific , more evolved defense mechanism. Involves T and B lymphocytes . 2. Describe, in detail, the physiologic activities of lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and monocytes. Note the locations and immune functions of these cells; also consider whether their activities are characteristic of early or late immune responses. neutrophils- early responders, abundant (60% of total leukocytes), short lived (4-10 hours), engulf bacteria and debris (phagocytosis), antigen-presentation, important in wound healing. eosinophils- circulate approx. 8 hours, 12 days in tissue, when activated eosinophils degranulate and release pro-inflammatory chemicals from the granules in their cytoplasm, attack parasitic worms and important in allergic reactions basophils- circulate; (structurally similar cell, mast cell, found in tissue), important in allergic reactions, degranulate and release pro-inflammatory molecules, histamine, heparin, and vasoactive amines (all important in inflammation) monocytes- cells in transit (circulation) become macrophages (in tissue); macrophages perform phagocytosis in the tissues, cytoplasm does not contain granules (therefore referred to as an agranulocyte), mature cells (macrophages) play an important role as antigen-presenting cells, macrophages are mediators in inflammatory response, wound healing, can live for many years T lymphocytes- subpopulations (CD8+) are responsible for cell-mediated immune responses- direct killing of targeted cells, helper T cells (CD4+) are responsible for presenting antigens to B lymphocytes B lymphocytes- plasma B lymphocytes produce antibodies, some B cells survive after an infection, these become memory cells and they will mobilize and secrete antibodies quickly if the host even encounters that antigen again.
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  • Spring '16
  • Professor Smith
  • cells, immune cells

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