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lecture46-BIO150-Rowe-07-08 - Lecture 46 Perspectives on...

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1 ± Evolution and medicine ± Aging: proximate and ultimate causes ± Costs of reproduction ± The evolutionary theories of aging ± Mutation accumulation ± Antagonistic pleiotropy Perspectives on Evolutionary Medicine and an Introduction to Aging Lecture 46 2 Evolutionary Medicine Application of evolutionary principles to the problems of health Definition: Asks why (ultimate) rather than how (proximate) questions Approach: Better understanding = better prevention, treatment Utility? 3 Questions in Evolutionary Medicine • Is this response (e.g. fever, resistance, virulence) adaptive, and for whom? • When do we expect resistance to evolve. • When do we expect the evolution of extreme virulence? • Are there multiple origins of a disease? • Will vaccines lead to evolution of pathogens • Why do we age? 4 Aging 5 What is Aging or Senescence? Definition: • Progressive decline in somatic function reflected in reductions in fertility as well as survivorship Proximate cause: • Progressive degeneration of the soma 6 Manifestations of Aging • General degeneration of the soma – Impaired function (speed, strength, sight, etc) – Increased disease (cancer, organ failure) • Mortality rate increases with age
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7 Senescence: An Evolutionary Mystery Explanation? Appears to be non-adaptive in the extreme We have evolved to age and die Observation: 8 Aging at Different Rates Humans and Fulmars 9 Mayfly 1 day Bristlecone Pine 5,000 years 10 Medical Views of Aging: Headlines Eat your ACEs: Vitamin E extends lifespan Exercise: Run to reduce heart disease Get rich: The rich live longer Diet restriction: Eat less, live longer But WHY has aging evolved? 11 Free Radicals and Vitamins • Molecules containing at least one unpaired electron • Attack and modify macromolecules – “Oxidation” of DNA, proteins, lipids • We have our own defenses (various amino
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lecture46-BIO150-Rowe-07-08 - Lecture 46 Perspectives on...

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