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Unformatted text preview: STUDY GUIDE, EXAM ONE, POLS 101 A & B, FALL, 2007 GENERAL GUIDELINES Begin your studying by carefully reviewing your class notes and then reviewing your textbook and reading handouts. For each chapter in the text, be sure that you review the various tables/charts as well as the terms which are in boldface and/or defined in the margins of your text. One good way to study is to examine each chapter sub-heading and ask yourself if you know what the contents of the following section is. Also, be sure to check out the printed study guide, available from the Calvin Bookstore, or use the on-line test questions (see Syllabus p. 1). The following questions are meant to be suggestive of the material you should know. They are not intended to cover every possible question which might appear on your exam. INTRODUCTION/AMERICA IN THE 21ST CENTURY (CHAPTER 1) 1. Key Terms: Politics: the process of resolving conflicts over how society should use its scarce resources and who should receive various benefits, such as public health care and public higher education Power: the ability to influence the behavior of others usually through the use of force, persuasion, or rewards political science democracy: a system of government in which the people have ultimate political authority, autocracy: a form of government in which power and authority are in the hands of a single person social contract: A voluntary agreement among individuals to create a government and to give that government adequate power to secure the mutual protection and welfare of all individuals Lockean Liberalism: classic liberalism, a government by and for the people with popular sovereignty private property: a component of classic "lockean" liberalism cultural mandate: obligation toward the world and our culture monarchy: a form of autocracy in which a king, queen, emperor, empress, tsar, or tsarina, is the highest authority in the government...usually obtain power through inheritance direct democracy: a system of government in which political decisions are made by the people themselves rather than by elected representatives. This form of government was widely practiced in Greece republic: essentially a term referring to a representative democracy in which the will of the majority is expressed trough smaller groups of individuals elected by te people to act as their representatives authority: The ability to exercise power such as the power to make and enforce laws legitimately patriotism: loyalty to ones country 2 2. 3. 4. 5. What three key tasks does government perform? (pp. 4-5) resolving conflicts, providing public services, and defending te nation and its culture What are some of the key principles of American democracy? Equality in voting, individual freedom, equal protection of the law, majority rule and minority rights, voluntary consent to be governed What do your authors mean by "a nation divided?" (p. 14) that we are a very culturally divided country. What are the key political ideologies in the U.S.? (p. 15) Democrats and Republicans How do they differ? Liberals (democrats) believe in such ideals as constitutionally guaranteed civil liberties, political equality, free political competition, and separation of church and state. Conservatives place high value on the principles of community, continuity, law and order, and the preservation of rule by the privileged class CHRISTIANITY AND POLITICS (Fowler, Hertzke, and Olson Article) 1. 2. 3. Be familiar with the Fowler, Hertzke and Olson article. Use the questions at the end of the article to study this material. What four approaches to Christian involvement were discussed in class? How are the main characteristics of each? How would each approach apply to specific political issues (e.g. drug abuse, crime, poverty)? In your opinion, should ministers, congregations and/or denominations make specific pronouncements on political issues? THE US CONSTITUTION (CHAPTER 2) 1. Key Terms: Virginia Plan: proposed an entirely new national government under a constitution, bicameral legislature, national executive branch, national court system. New Jersey Plan: Congress would be able to regulate trade and impose taxes, each state would have only one vote, acts of congress would be the supreme law of the land, an executive office of more than one person would be elected by congress,, the executive office would appoint a national supreme court Articles of Confederation: The nation's first national constitution, which established a national form of government following the American Revolution. The Articles provided for a confederal form of government in which the central government had few powers. Great Compromise: A plan for a bicameral legislature in which one chamber would be based on population and the other chamber would represent each state equally. The plan, also k known as the Connecticut Compromise resolved the small-state/large-state controversy/ Bicameralism: a legislature made p of two chambers or parts the United states as a bicameral legislature composed of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Federalist Papers: 3 Madison: The model of government devised by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial three fifths compromise: A compromise reached during the Constitutional Convention by which it was agreed that three-fifths of all slaves were to be counted both for tax purposes and for representation in the House of Representatives. Separation of powers: The principle of dividing governmental powers among the executive, the legislative, and the judicial branches of government checks and balances: a major principle of American government in which each of the three branches is given the means to check the actions of the others. Shay's Rebellion: A rebellion of angry farmers in western MA in 1786 led by former Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays. This rebellion and other similar uprisings in the new England states emphasized the need for a true national government 2. How did the American experience of revolution and the Articles of Confederation influence the writing of the US Constitution? They were afraid of the powerful monarchy and at the same time they wanted a central government strong enough to prevent these kinds of crises. 3. Why do some people consider the Constitution to represent a "conservative counter-revolution?" 4. Why might one argue that the Constitution represents a "bundle of compromises?" What are the key compromises discussed in class? 5. How can the Constitution be amended? 6. Be familiar with the "Meal Deal" chapter in the Wasserman book. FEDERALISM (CHAPTER 3) 1. Key Terms: Federalism: a system of shared sovereignty between two levels of government, one national and one subational, occupying the same geographic region two-tiered government: another name for federalism unitary government: a centralized governmental system in which local or sub divisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government confederal government: a league of independent sovereign states, joined together by a central government that has only limited powers over them categorical grant: a federal grant targeted for a specific purpose as defined by federal law supremacy clause: Article VI, clause 2, of the constitution which makes the Constitution and federal laws superior to all conflicting state and local laws dual federalism: A system of government in which both the federal and state governments maintain diverse but sovereign powers cooperative federalism: The theory that the states and the federal government should cooperate in solving problems new federalism: A plan to limit the federal government's role in regulating state governments and to give the states increased power to decide how they should spend government revenues 4 Devolution: In the context of American politics, the transfer to the states of some of the responsibilities assumed by the national government since the 1930's Reserved powers: are powers that the United States Constitution does not give to the federal government, or forbid to the states, are reserved to the people or the states. block grant: A federal grant given to a state for a broad area, such as criminal justice or mental-health programs What is federalism? See above definition What are its strengths and weaknesses? Its strengths are: because te us I so large meaning that the political decision could take weeks to reach everyone and there for so a more centralized system would be unworkable. Provides a multitude of areas for decision making. Allows the political and cultural interests of regional groups to be reflected in the laws governing those groups. Weaknesses: the smaller the political unit the higher the likelihood it will be dominated by on political party. Ie slavery. Also poses the danger that national powers will be expanded at the expense of the states. State and federal governments can disagree (medical suicide) Why federalism sometimes is called "two tiered government?" because there is the state and federal governments which decide on different issues so it is two tiered How has American federalism changed or developed over time? There have bbeen many different types of federalism over time. State-natonalstate-national. Dual federalism- 1789-1933, cooperative- 1933-1968, new1986-present What is the constitutional basis of American federalism? It sets forth what the national and state governments can and cannot do What powers are given to each level of government? National: to coining money, to conduct foreign relations, to regulate interstate commerce, to declare war, to raise and support the military, to establish post offices, to establish courts inferior to the supreme court to admit new states, powers implied y the necessary and proper clause Concurrent: to levy and collect taxes, to borrow money, to make and enforce laws, to establish courts, to provide for the general welfare, to charter banks and corporations State: to regulate intrastate commerce, to conduct elections, to provide for public health, to ratify amendments to the federal constitution , to establish state militia Be familiar with the No Child Left Behind case study in the Wasserman book. 2. 3. 4. 5. INTEREST GROUPS (CHAPTER 6) 1. 2. 3. 4. Key Terms: interest group, lobbying, pluralism, public interest group, PAC What are the key components of the American interest group system and what are their political consequences? What are the various types of interest groups? How do interest groups directly and indirectly shape policy? 5 5. 6. How does the federal government regulate interest groups? Be familiar with the Harry and Louise case study in Wasserman. POLITICAL PARTIES (CHAPTER 7) 1, Key Terms: political party, national committee, national convention, New Deal Coalition, party eras, party identification, party realignment, patronage, proportional representation, responsible party model, third parties, two party system, single member district with plurality election. 2. Trace the development of American political parties over time. What were some of the key qualities of the parties? 3. What political parties were identified in our class debate? How do the various parties differ from each other? 4. Distinguish between party organization, party in the electorate, and party in government. 5. Which political party has the most identifiers in the US? How have patterns of identification changed over time? 6. What do we mean when we say the US has a "two-party" system? How does the American SMD with plurality system affect the number of parties? Why? Why are third parties important? 7. Are American parties "responsible?" Why or why not? 8. Be familiar with the "Parties and Technology" chapter in Wasserman. ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course POLS 101 taught by Professor Penning during the Spring '08 term at Calvin.
- Spring '08
- Political Science