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splitfall.08 - Barbarization/Romanization • late 4th c...

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SPLIT AND FALL Recovery from 3rd c. crisis better emperors, like Diocletian, Constantine (usually) 2 emperors, with 2 second-level emperors, established Constantine; son of a former 'Caesar;' becomes 'Caesar' himself, then an (West) 'Augustus;' but has to fight off a rival because of CHI RHO vision before victory at 312 battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine ends persecution of Christianity Constantine fights and defeats co-emperor ('Augustus') 324; rules as sole emperor until 337 Constantinople at Bosphorus becomes new, second capital in East (324); split of Roman empire East/West permanent in late 4th c. Byzantium (Greek colony), then "city of Constantine", then Istanbul Barbarians at the gate in West northern Celtic, Germanic tribes continue to be on move; gain control in 5th c. of n. Africa, Spain; threaten Italian peninsula Rome sacked by invaders 410, 455 CE 476 last Western Roman emperor deposed; barbarian control of Italian p. 6th c. attempts by Eastern Roman empire to recover Western lands fail
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Unformatted text preview: Barbarization/Romanization • late 4th c.: Visigoths admitted into Empire, then revolt • individual barbarian volunteers in Roman army; mercenary Barbarian troops • Western Roman emperors controlled by tribal leaders • last great Roman commander a 'Vandal' • northern tribes seek assistance against Huns • barbarians gradually Christianized; Latinized (leading to Romance languages) • continuation of Roman legal systems; Justinian important 6th c. Eastern Roman emperor (law code, Hagia Sophia) Middle Ages Muslim conquests of NE, n. Africa, Spain; resulting preservation of Hellenic philosophy and science; in n. Europe and (sometimes Italy) Holy Roman Empire Roman Eastern Empire lasts another millennium as Byzantine Empire (more Greek, Christian than Roman); has greater resources in troops, money, geography 1453: Constantinople sacked by Ottomans...
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