January 27, 2008
Chapter 1 History Notes
The First Humans
-Uruk is one of the first cities in the world and part of the world’s first civilization.
-Southern Iraq is also known as Mesopotamia
-The earliest humanlike creatures are known as hominids.
They existed in Africa as long
as three to four million years ago.
-Australopithecines flourished in East and South Africa and were the first hominids to
make simple stone tools.
-Homo erectus (upright human being) emerged around 1.5 million years ago.
and more varied tools and they left Africa to move into Europe and Asia.
-250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (wise human being) emerged.
-two groups of homo sapiens
-Neanderthal (place in Germany)- relied on a variety of stone tools and
they buried their dead. Found in Europe and Middle East.
- Homo sapiens sapiens (wise, wise human being) appeared in Africa
between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago.
Took over Neanderthals
The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age
-Paleolithic Age (old stone age) 2,500,000-10,000 BC
-Home sapiens sapiens were nomads, lived in small bands of twenty or thirty, and hunted
with precise tools such as the spear or bow and arrow.
-Both men and women were responsible for finding food, a rough equality existed
between men and women.
-The making of tools and use of fire were the two most important technological
innovations of Paleolithic people.
The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000-4,000)
-After the 10,000 BC ice age, the Neolithic Revolution (new stone) age happened.
-Began producing food by systematic agriculture.
The supply of food, while the taming
of animals, such as goats, cattle, pigs, and sheep, added a steady source of mean, milk
and fibers such as wool for clothing.
-Revolutionary change is dramatic and requires great effort, but the ability to acquire
food on a regular basis gave humans greater control over their environment.
allowed them to give up their nomadic way of life and begin to live in settled
-Systematic agriculture probably developed independently between 8,000 and 7,000 BC
in four different areas of the world. (Near East, Asia, Africa, and the Americas)
-One of the oldest known agricultural villages was Jericho, in Palestine near the Dead