HistoryNotes - Portia Mellott Chapter 1 History Notes The...

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Portia Mellott January 27, 2008 Chapter 1 History Notes The First Humans -Uruk is one of the first cities in the world and part of the world’s first civilization. -Southern Iraq is also known as Mesopotamia -The earliest humanlike creatures are known as hominids. They existed in Africa as long as three to four million years ago. -Australopithecines flourished in East and South Africa and were the first hominids to make simple stone tools. -Homo erectus (upright human being) emerged around 1.5 million years ago. Used larger and more varied tools and they left Africa to move into Europe and Asia. -250,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (wise human being) emerged. -two groups of homo sapiens -Neanderthal (place in Germany)- relied on a variety of stone tools and they buried their dead. Found in Europe and Middle East. - Homo sapiens sapiens (wise, wise human being) appeared in Africa between 200,000 and 150,000 years ago. Took over Neanderthals The Hunter-Gatherers of the Old Stone Age -Paleolithic Age (old stone age) 2,500,000-10,000 BC -Home sapiens sapiens were nomads, lived in small bands of twenty or thirty, and hunted with precise tools such as the spear or bow and arrow. -Both men and women were responsible for finding food, a rough equality existed between men and women. -The making of tools and use of fire were the two most important technological innovations of Paleolithic people. The Neolithic Revolution (c. 10,000-4,000) -After the 10,000 BC ice age, the Neolithic Revolution (new stone) age happened. -Began producing food by systematic agriculture. The supply of food, while the taming of animals, such as goats, cattle, pigs, and sheep, added a steady source of mean, milk and fibers such as wool for clothing. -Revolutionary change is dramatic and requires great effort, but the ability to acquire food on a regular basis gave humans greater control over their environment. It also allowed them to give up their nomadic way of life and begin to live in settled communities. -Systematic agriculture probably developed independently between 8,000 and 7,000 BC in four different areas of the world. (Near East, Asia, Africa, and the Americas) -One of the oldest known agricultural villages was Jericho, in Palestine near the Dead Sea.
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