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Unformatted text preview: Music Appreciation Classical Era Test Study Guide Symphony #94 in G Major, “Surprise” Movement II ­ Andante Composer:​ Joseph Haydn (Austria) Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Symphony (Multi­movement work for orchestra) Form:​ Theme and Variation Info: ­ Order: A, A’, A’’, break, A’’’, A’’’’ , coda ­ In A1: polyphony ­ In A2: Minor, polyphonic, terraced dynamics, modulation, loud dynamics, fast rhythms ­ In A3: woodwinds, faster rhythm ­ In A4: cadence ­ Balanced, symmetrical phrasing ­ Frequent repetitions and cadences ­ Homophonic texture ­ Tuneful melody Melody to remember easier:​ Haydn’s surprise symphony, number 94 of his, it's a theme and variation, classical it is Trumpet Concerto in E­flat major Movement III ­ Allegro Composer:​ Joseph Haydn Era:​ Classical Genre:​ (Trumpet) Concerto Form:​ Sonata­Rondo (blend of hybrid of rondo and sonata allegro forms) Info: ­ Order: (A = melodic, B = motif) AB, AB, A (modulations), AB, A (Coda) ­ Terraced dynamics ­ Trumpet solo & trills ­ Different key centers ­ Crescendos, diminuendos Eine Kleine Nachtmusik (K.525) Movement I ­ Allegro Composer:​ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (Austria) Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Serenade Form:​ Sonata­Allegro Form Info: ­ In sonata allegro form ­ Serenade ­ Written for string quartet, but usually performed by chamber string orchestra Melody to remember:​ “Mozart wrote a serenade for string...Eine Kleine Nachtmusik” Symphony #40 in G minor Movement I ­ Molto Allegro Composer:​ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Symphony Form:​ Sonata­Allegro Info: ­ Woodwinds ­ Crescendos ­ Passion ­ 3 note motif ­ Bridge of recapitulation modulates Melody to remember:​ “This is a symphony 40 by mozart, It’s a sonata allegro form” Piano Concerto #20 in D minor (K.466) Movement I ­ Allegro Composer:​ Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Concerto Form:​ Sonata­Allegro form Info: ­ Order: Exposition I, Exposition II, Development, Recapitulation, Coda ­ Exposition I: Theme I, Bridge I, Theme II, Bridge II, Closing Theme ­ Exposition II: Piano Theme 1, Theme 1, Theme II, Piano Theme II, Bridge I, Closing Theme ­ Development: Q&A between orchestra and piano; orchestra plays anxiousness, struggle, and battle; piano plays calm and peace; piano does not play themes, orchestra does not play piano themes ­ Recapitulation: Theme I, Bridge I, Theme II, Piano Theme II, Bridge I, Cadenza ­ Coda: Bridge II, Closing Theme ­ Written on Feb 10, 1785 and performed the next day ­ First Piano Concerto he wrote in a minor key ­ First movement in sonata­allegro form ­ Double exposition:​ 1st only orchestra; 2nd = piano & symphony ­ Features a ​ Cadenza​ at the end of the recapitulation to show off a soloist’s virtuosity Requiem ​ in D minor (K.626) Movement I ­ Requiem Movement II ­ Dies Irae Movement VI ­ Confutatis Movement VII ­ Lacrymosa Composer:​ Mozart (Completed by F.X. Sussmayer) [Mozart’s student] Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Requiem (Mass for the dead; type of an oratorio Form:​ 12 movements, each has a different structure Info: ­ Orchestra (oratorio) ­ dark lyrics about judgement day ­ Chorus in latin and some greek ­ Fairly short movements “Hallelujah” from the Messiah Composer:​ George Handel (German) Era: ​ BAROQUE Genre:​ Oratorio & chorus Form:​ through­composed Info: ­ Terraced dynamics ­ Word painting ­ Pedal point ­ Imitation, fugue ­ Change between polyphonic and monophonic textures ­ Modulation ­ Conclusion: stop (deap breath) “Hallelujah” ­ In English “Alla Hornpipe” from Water Music Suite Composer:​ George Frideric Handel Era:​ Classical Genre:​ Suite Form:​ Ternary (A­B­A) Info: ­ A section is homophonic ­­ french horns, trumpets ­­ terraced dynamics ­ B section is polyphonic ­­ no brass ­ B does NOT have terraced dynamics due to no brass instruments ­ A = major ­ B = minor Melody to remember:​ “This is the hornpipe” (When trumpets play in the beginning) Composers: Joseph Haydn:​ (Austrian) Father of symphony and String Quartet Wolfgang “Amadeus” Mozart:​ (Austrian) By age 3, he developed perfect pitch. By age 5, he was an accomplished harpsichord player. By age 6, he was composing music. By age 7, he was sight reading and improvising on melodies given to him. By age 8, he wrote a symphony. By age 11 he wrote an orchestra. Genres: Symphony​ ­ an elaborate musical composition for full orchestra, typically in four movements, at least one of which is traditionally in sonata form. Concerto​ ­ a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, especially one conceived on a relatively large scale. Sonata​ ­ a composition for an instrumental soloist, often with a piano accompaniment, typically in several movements with one or more in sonata form. Chamber Music​ ­ 2­8 players/singers. 1 player per part. No conductor. Very intimate music making. String Quartet​ ­ a chamber music ensemble consisting of first and second violins, viola, and cello. Serenade​ ­ a piece of music sung or played in the open air, typically by a man at night under the window of his lover. Requiem​ ­ a Mass for the repose of the souls of the dead. Program Music​ ­ music with a backstory Absolute Music​ ­ music without a backstory Forms: Sonata­Allegro​ ­ an organizational structure based on contrasting musical ideas. It consists of three main sections ­ exposition, development, and recapitulation ­ and sometimes includes an optional coda at the end. Rondo​ ­ a musical form with a recurring leading theme, often found in the final movement of a sonata or concerto. Sonata­Rondo​ ­ ​ ​ blend of sonata form and rondo form. Minuet and Trio​ ­ a slow, stately ballroom dance for two in triple time, popular especially in the 18th century. Theme and Variations​ ­ the piece begins with a theme that is the main melody. That is followed by one or more variations of that melody. ABA (Ternary)​ ­ the form of a movement in which the first subject is repeated after an interposed second subject in a related key. AB (Binary)​ ­ When a section is repeated twice and the next section is repeated twice too. (A­A­B­B). Vocabulary: Age of Enlightenment​ ­ an intellectual and scientific movement of 18th century Europe which was characterized by a rational and scientific approach to religious, social, political, and economic issues. 1st Viennese School​ ­ a name mostly used to refer to three composers of the Classical period in Western art music in late­18th­century Vienna: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven. Chamber Music​ ­ Music with 2­8 players where each players gets their own part and no conductor. Minuet​ ­ A three meter dance Rocket Theme​ ­ When a piece starts with the melody quickly rising to a higher pitch. Recapitulation​ ­ When the Exposition is “recapped” (repeated) but has some modification. Motive/Motif​ ­ short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition. Cadenza​ ­ A section in the piece for the purpose of showing off the amazing skills of a soloist. Double exposition​ ­ when a piece has two expositions but one is slightly different than the other. ...
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