MusicBaroqueEraTestReview - TimMarder Pd7MusicApp...

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Unformatted text preview: Tim Marder Pd 7 Music App Music Appreciation Baroque Era Test Study Guide Baroque Music Pieces: Little Fugue in G minor Composer:​ Johann Sebastian Bach Era:​ Baroque Genre:​ Fugue Form:​ Exposition, Development, Coda Info: ­ Sound: organ ­ Polyphonic texture ­ 4 Voices ­ Imitation ­ Main theme = subject ­ Ornamentation (trills = rapid movement between 2 neighboring pieces) ­ Modulation (temporary change of key center) ­ Sequences ­ Picardy third ending Toccata and Fugue in D minor Composer:​ Johann Sebastian Bach Era:​ Baroque Genre:​ Toccata (virtuosic, sounds improvised, for clavier) Form:​ Toccata, then the Fugue Info: ­ Sound: Pipe Organ ­ Polyphonic texture ­ Contrast ­ Changes in Timbre ­ Unexpected Pauses ­ Ornamentation ­ Motives/Motifs (incomplete musical ideas) ­ Consonance vs. Dissonance ­ Petal Point (creates dissonance and tension) Canon in D Composer:​ Johann Pachelbel Era:​ Baroque Genre:​ Canon (type of Polyphony) Form:​ Constant expansion Info: ­ 3 Violins in canon and basso continuo (harpsichord and cello) ­ Cello plays same 8 notes over & over again ­ Ostinato (repeated melodic or rhythmic figure) ­ Texture: Polyphony ­ Use of imitation ­ Basso Continuo (a keyboard and a low string which provide the harmony and beat) “Spring” from Four Seasons​ , Movement 1 ­ Allegro Composer:​ Antonio Vivaldi Era:​ Baroque Genre:​ Concerto Violin (solo+orchestra) AND program music Form:​ Ritornello Info: ­ Instrumentation: ­ Orchestra (Tutti) ­ only strings ­ Violin Solo ­ Basso Continuo → harpsichord + low string ­ Form of Movement ­ Ritornello (refrain) ­ the main theme always return ­ Terraced Dynamics ­ Birds ­ violin trills lightening ­ rapid pitch change ­ A = Tutti ­ Word Painting ­ Petal Points ­ Only ONE main emotion + theme Brandenburg Concerto #2 in F​ I ­ Allegro Composer:​ Johann Sebastian Bach Era:​ Baroque Genre:​ Concerto Grosso (Concertino group vs. the tutti group) Form:​ Ritornello Info: ­ Concertino Group (trumpet, recorder, oboe, violin) ­ Tutti Group (All Strings) ­ Basso Continuo (cello and harpsichord) ­ Polyphonic texture ­ Terraced Dynamics (jumps up and down) ­ Continuo (never stops going) (Steady rhythm) “Air on the G string”​ from Orchestral Suite #3 Composer:​ Johann Sebastian Bach Genre:​ Suite ­ Collection of Dances Air ­ slow movement Form:​ Binary (2 parts ­ AB) Info: ­ Instruments: All strings with basso continuo (harpsichord, low string) ­ Upper strings ­ pedal point ­ Polyphonic texture ­ Slow Tempo and Beat ­ Form ­ 2 parts (sections) ­ Codences (musical pauses/points of end/places of rest) Composers: Johann Pachelbel​ ­ German composer and organist (1653­1706) Johann Sebastian Bach​ ­ one of the most well known composers from the Baroque era, wrote hundreds of pieces for churches and courts. He is also German. (1685­1750) George Handel​ ­ German composer who wrote operas and organ concertos. (1685­1759) Antonio Vivaldi​ ­ Italian composer who is famous for writing The Four Seasons. (1678­1741) Claudio Monteverdi​ ­ Italian composer who wrote the first opera. (1567­1643) Henry Purcell​ ­ British composer who originally wrote “A Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra” (1659­1695) Genres: Canon​ ­ When the 1st melody is played, the 2nd melody comes in a couple seconds later, and the 3rd comes in the same amount of seconds after the 2nd, etc. Fugue​ ­ The genre with imitation. When the first voice is sung and then a couple seconds later it is repeated by another voice while the first voice is on the next section. Toccata​ ­ The genre when most of the piece is improvised, after the toccata part, is followed by a fugue. Suite​ ­ A collection of dances. Concert​ ­ a concert is a concert ­.­ Concerto grosso​ ­ concertino group vs. tutti group Program Music​ ­ music with a backstory Absolute Music​ ­ Music without a backstory Opera​ ­ a dramatic work in one or more acts, set to music for singers and instrumentalists. Overture, Aria, Recitative, Chorus​ ­ Types of pieces where the main theme is someone singing Forms: Fugue​ ­ Uses imitation. When the first voice is sung and then a couple seconds later it is repeated by another voice while the first voice is on the next section. Ritornello​ ­ a short instrumental refrain or interlude in a vocal work. Something that keeps recurring. Binary​ ­ separated into 2 sections, both of which are usually repeated. A­A­B­B Ternary​ ­ The first section is repeated after the second section ends. A­B­A Vocabulary: Basso Continuo​ ­ an accompanying part that includes a bass line and harmonies, typically played on a keyboard instrument and with other instruments such as cello or harpsichord. Swell Box​ ­ a part of a large organ in which some of the pipes are enclosed, with a movable shutter for controlling the sound level. Terraced Dynamics​ ­ Expressive style typical of some early music in which volume levels shift abruptly from soft to loud and back without gradual crescendos and decrescendos. Ornamentation ​ ­ to add “decoration” to music. Pedal Point​ ­ a note sustained in one part (usually the bass) through successive harmonies, some of which are independent of it. Ostinato ​ ­ a continually repeated musical phrase or rhythm. Sequence ​ ­ restatement of a motif or longer melodic (or harmonic) passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice. Word Painting​ ­ writing music that reflects the literal meaning of a song. Sacred/Secular​ ­ Sacred music was music written for the church and secular music was not associated with religion. Mostly Court. Fugue ​ ­ a contrapuntal composition in which a short melody or phrase (the subject) is introduced by one part and successively taken up by others and developed by interweaving the parts. Toccata ​ ­ a musical composition for a keyboard instrument designed to exhibit the performer's touch and technique. Coloratura Passages​ ­ elaborate ornamentation of a vocal melody, especially in operatic singing by a soprano. Melisma ​ ­ a group of notes sung to one syllable of text. Virtuoso ​ ­ a person highly skilled in music or another artistic pursuit. Picardy third​ ­ It refers to the use of a major chord of the tonic at the end of a musical section that is either modal or in a minor key. Imitation ​ ­ repetition of a melody in a polyphonic texture shortly after its first appearance in a different voice. Concertino ​ ­ a solo instrument or solo instruments playing with an orchestra. Tutti ​ ­ a passage to be performed with all voices or instruments together. Ritornello ​ ­ a short instrumental refrain or interlude in avocal work. Subject​ ­ the exposition part of a fugue Castrato ​ ­ a male singer castrated in boyhood so as to retain a soprano or alto voice. Program/absolute Music​ ­ Program = Music with a backstory; Absolute = without backstory Suite ​ ­ ordered set of instrumental or orchestral/concert band pieces. Exposition ​ ­ initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section. Development​ ­ transformation and restatement of initial material, and is often contrasted with musical variation, which is a slightly different means to the same end. Dynamics​ ­ the volume of the music Monophonic​ ­ single musical line Homophonic​ ­ characterized by the movement of accompanying parts in the same rhythm as the melody. Polyphonic ​ ­ multiple musical lines/melodies Clavier ​ ­ a keyboard instrument, especially one with strings, such as the harpsichord. Voice/part/melodic line​ ­ A categorized section in an orchestra Motive/motif​ ­ short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition. Some things you have to know about the Baroque Era: ­ Orchestra is small, mainly strings ­ Orchestra is NOT standardized ­ Clavier ­ Organ and harpsichord ­ Birth of Opera ­ Contrast is loved ­ Major is happy; Minor is Sad ­ Improvisation was expected ­ Fugue is King ­ Constant, vigorous driving rhythm, steady beat ­ Continuous expansion of melody ­ 1 main theme in a piece/movement ­ 1 main emotion in peace ­ Absolute music is emphasized ...
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