hist 1020 - EXAM 1 The Early Modern World(15th-18th...

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January 15, 2016EXAM 1The Early Modern World (15th-18thcenturies)1.Islamic worlda.Mughalb.Safavidc.Ottoman2.Spanish advantage in trade world3.The age of explorationa.Christopher Columbusi.Needed funding (comes from Spain)1.Ferdinand and Isabella2.3 motivations for supporting Columbusa.Search for basic resourcesb.Desire to establish own trade routes (w/ Asian markets)c.Expand influence of Christian viewsii.First arrives in Bahamas1.Encounters “Indians” actually called taino peopleb.The Columbian exchangei.Global diffusion of plants, animals, pathogens as a result of contact between two distinct separated worldsii.“New World” Americas & “Old World” Europe/Middle East1.Quinine could treat symptoms of malaria a.Gin and tonic came about this2.Horsesa.Symbol of American identity although came fromEuropeiii.The microbial exchange1.#1 killer in new world was small pox2.Transfer of disease was unequal between worlds3.Europe only received syphilis 4.Europe gave Americas smallpox, measles, diphtheria, influenzac.Spanish Americai.Mexico: hernan Cortés enters Mexico in 1519 and defeats the Aztec empire to establish Spanish rule by 1521ii.Peru: Pizarro enters peru in 1532 and defeats the incas Spanishrule by 1533iii.Spain rules Chile by 1541d.The Spanish ideal in Latin Americai.Patrimonialism1.All power flows from the king
2.Means of trying to maintain controlii.Economy driven by commercial agriculture and mining1.Mining of mainly silver and some goldiii.Forced labor1.The transatlantic slave tradea.Most went to brazil, next to Caribbean, least amount went to north America e.The middle passagei.The trip across the Atlanticii.During peak years (1740-1810), Africa would supply 60,000 captives a yearJanuary 20, 20161.A new order of knowledgea.The world economy before 1800:i.Merchant networks1.Important in the massing of wealthii.Household (family) production1.Manufacturing would take place in the home2.Include domestic duties3.Simply producing to clothe and feed your familya.Not to get money4.All family members involved in this processiii.Slave labor1.Items not produced in the home were produced by the slavesb.Politics in the early modern world: an age of empirei.Characteristics1.Dynastica.Single family b.Ruled determined by blood2.Religious3.Social hierarchya.Pyramid of social ranksb.Monarch at the topi.Monarch has unchecked and unquestioned rule over the empirec.Below monarch – elitei.Pay taxesii.Serve in time of wariii.Fill administrative roles for the empireiv.Exclusive access to education1.Education = elite practice
v.Have greatest consumer powervi.Tend to be very conservatived.Below elite – i.Modern middle classii.Larger world viewe.Peasantry at the bottomi.Largest portion of the populationii.Had to pay large amount of taxesiii.Very limited world view1.Limited access to knowledge4.Superior militarya.Important in the pursuit of empire5.Mercantilisma.Intertwined with colonizationb.Belief in finite wealthc.Maximize one’s own wealthi.

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