Midterm Review - MIDTERM Quiz 1 Review 1/23 Major cause of...

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MIDTERM: Quiz 1 Review 1/23 Major cause of death in adults <75? …lifestyle Obesity today:>2/3 of US adults are overweight or obese Major risk factor for heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, cancer Poor eating habits may affect your health for yrs w/o symptoms Food is: edible biochemicals In 2005 consumers only spent 9.9% of disposable income on food As disposable income ↑, share spent on food ↓ 1/25 According to a survey, taste is the most important factor in food selection Life expectancy is on the rise due to: o ↓ in infant & child mortality o ↓ in mortality in child bearing o Advances in medicine, nutrition, & sanitation Population Dynamics o Today: ~300M people o Add 50-80M by 2020 o Largest & fastest growing segment of US population: Hispanics Now: ~40M; +1.2M/yr Grows at rate of 13% per yr o 2 nd fastest: Asian American Now: 13.5M Grows: 12.5%/yr Meals today: fast, fresh, frequent, flexible, flavorful ’04 food $: o Farm value: 19 cents; marketing bill: 81 cents o Labor (38.5) ; Packaging (8) ; Rent (4.5) ; Profit (4.5) Food system: o Production o Manufacturing/processing o Marketing/Distribution o Consumption Agriculture: largest industry in the world; US produces more food than any other nation and is the largest exporter of agricultural products o Farms are consolidating; in the future, tech will be a driving force and there will be less gov’t support o Food processing industry: merger mania → intense competition → active new product development o Food service industry: steady growth since 1980’s, 9% of the workforce, 48.5% of food $ is away from home
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1/30: Key Nutrition Concepts 1) Food is a basic need of human Hunger and malnutrition are underlying cause of death in children 1B hungry people in the world 840M chronically hungry Food Security: access at all times to a sufficient supply of safe, nutritious food o Food insecure: 10% in US & 4% in Canada 2) Food provides energy, nutrients, and other substances req’d for growth & health Essential Nutrients: o Req’d for normal growth and health o Cannot be produced by the body in sufficient amounts = must be present in the diet o Ex: Vitamin A, Linoleic Acid, Iron Nonessential Nutrients: o Req’d for normal growth and health o Can be synthesized by body cells from other dietary components = not req’d in diet o Ex: Cholesterol, Oleic Acid Energy Nutrients: o Carbs: Starches & Sugars → 4kcal/g o Fats → 9kcal/g o Proteins → 4kcal/g o (Alcohol → 7kcal/g) How much do we need? o EAR: Estimated Average Requirement Amount of a given nutrient needed to meet the needs of ½ the people in a healthy population The mean requirement for a healthy population o RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowance: RDA = EAR + 2*(sd) Level of intake of a given nutrient judged adequate to meet known nutrient needs for practically all healthy people while decreasing the risk of certain diseases Basis for Iron RDA in Adults (18% of food iron is absorbed) Men: lose about 1 mg/day → need 1mg/day EAR = 1/.18 = 6mg/day Sd = 1 RDA = 6 + 1*2 = 8mg/day Women: lost about 1.4mg/day → need 1.4mg/day
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