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chapter 12 - Nervous Tissues 11/16 How do the peripheral...

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Nervous Tissues 11/16 How do the peripheral and central nervous systems differ? What is the difference between afferent and efferent neurons? What are the anatomical structures of a neuron? What are the functions and classes of neuron? How do myelinated and unmyelinated neurons differ? What is the difference and significance of slow and fast axonal transport? What are neurotransmitter subclasses? How is target cell activity modified? What are direct messengers and 2 nd messengers? How do we end a signal? Why are post-synaptic effects seldom all-or-none?
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Our nervous system can be broken down into central and peripheral systems based on anatomical location.
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Structures associated with Neurons: Soma (perikaryon)- Nucleus/Nucleolus Endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Actin/Neurofibrils Alzheimer Disease and neural tangles Plasma Membrane composition- Polyunsaturated FA, FA length and cholesterol Membrane width and separation of charge Baby formula FA vs. Breast Milk FA? Dendrite- Axon- Synaptic Knob/Terminal Button/Synaptic Node Terminal Arborization Axon Collateral Neurons rarely (if ever) undergo mitosis (good and bad) Lipofuscin: indicator of aging, wear and tear (lysosomes)
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What are the universal properties of neurons? What are the functional classes of neurons? Universal Properties of neurons: Excitability/Irritability- AP Conduction- Neurotransmitter secretion- Functional Classes of neurons: Sensory (Afferent)- Interneurons (Association)- Motor (Efferent)- Glial cells are not excitable (not neurons)
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What are the three primary types of neuron and what are their common characteristics? 1) Multipolar Neurons: most common in body Contain many dendrites!
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