Lecture 12 - Memory and Cognition The persistence of...

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Memory and Cognition The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
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Early Work Hermann Ebbinghaus Used nonsense 3 letter syllables (e.g., ZEB) Discovered that people can remember @ 7 plus/or minus 2 after a single trial that forgetting is greatest immediately after learning That what is remembered after about 7 days is retained long term that people forget @ 90% of what they learn in a class within thirty days
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Ebbinghaus’ Retention Curve
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The Serial Position Effect
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Retention Rates of Learned Material Lecture 5% Reading 10% Audiovisuals 20% Demonstrations 30% Discussion 50% Practice by doing 75% Teaching others 90% What I hear, I forget What I see, I remember What I do, I understand Confucius
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Studying people with EXTRAORNIARY MEMORY The case of "S" -- Shereshevskii Alexander Luria studied “S” using the case study method "S" could remember long, long list of word and numbers could remember amazing detail for many years Surprisingly his extraordinary memory actually debilitated his life
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Understanding Memory Problems Korsakoff’s syndrome Creates inability to form new memories Alzheimer Disease Damage to hippocampus and eventually through out the brain Amnesia The inability to remember episodes
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Two types of Memory Explicit Memory (aka declarative memory) Anything one can “know” or “declare” New facts, events, experiences Left hippocampus is verbal; right is visual and location Implicit Memory Retention without conscious recollection Memory of learned skills – walking, talking, writing, etc. Seems to be cerebellum related
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Memory Process #1 Encoding Encoding is typically an active process that requires immediate selective attention Involves converting sensory information into neural representations Process of making a permanent memory trace or record
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Lecture 12 - Memory and Cognition The persistence of...

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