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slides1fall06 - Edward Braun Deena Westbrook Tejan Ottallah...

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Genetics PCB 3063 Section 6130 http://www.zoo.ufl.edu/ebraun/PCB3063 Edward Braun Deena Westbrook Tejan Ottallah
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Introduction to Genetic Analysis Eighth Edition Chapters 1 and 6: Genetics and the Organism From Gene to Phenotype http://www.whfreeman.com/iga8e Copyright  ©  2005 by W. H. Freeman & Company Anthony Griffiths • Susan Wessler • Richard Lewontin William Gelbart • David Suzuki • Jeffrey Miller Your text:
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The science of Genetics is the study of heredity. Modern genetics began early  in the 20 th  century with the  rediscovery of the pioneering  work of Gregor Mendel. Mendel worked on the  garden pea, and he  established that certain traits  could be passed from  generation to generation in  an all-or-none manner. 
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The shows the inheritance of  color in maize, which is a very  important model organism for  genetics. Each kernel is a separate  individual, potentially with a  different genetic make-up from  its neighbor.   -What would have to be     true about the parents      of these kernels?
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What are the most popular organism for genetic experimentation? -There are a number of “model systems.” This slide             shows bacteriophages  infecting a bacterium.
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Fungi are also popular model  systems. The yeasts  ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae   [Brewer’s yeast] and  Schizo.  pombe  [fission yeast]) were  used to make a number of  fundamental discoveries in  genetics. This image shows one of my  favorite fungi, the orange  bread mold  Neurospora  - Neurospora  species are fire   adapted organisms.   -The “lab rat” species of    Neurospora  is  N. crassa .
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Plants are also popular model  systems. Maize was used  early in the 20 th  century to  examine the relationship  between chromosomes and  genes and to establish that  genes can be mobile. This image shows thale cress  or  Arabidopsis thaliana , a  weed related to the mustard  plant.   - Arabidopsis  is popular   because it grows relatively   rapidly and has a small   genome. However, it    actually has a number    of genes similar to our   own genome.  There are ~25,000 protein coding genes in  both  Arabidopsis  and Humans
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The most popular animal models for genetic research are the fruit fly  Drosophila  melanogaster  and the nematode  Caenorhabditis elegans , both of which have very short life  cycles and relatively small genomes. The mouse has been the most popular vertebrate  model, but the practicality of complete genome sequencing has also made the pufferfish  (which have the smallest genomes of any vertebrate) important for comparative work.
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