Session 7 (Harvesting Chemical Energy)

Session 7 (Harvesting Chemical Energy) - MCB 181 Study...

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MCB 181 Study Session 7 (Harvesting Chemical Energy)
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Learning Goals for Study Session 7 (Harvesting Chemical Energy) Explain why the oxidation of glucose occurs through many chemical reactions rather than in just one overall step. Briefly describe what happens to glucose during glycolysis, explain why the initial steps require energy and list the products of the glycolytic pathway. Describe the role of pyruvate oxidation in the overall process of cellular respiration. Distinguish between glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in terms of location in the cell and products from the overall processes. Describe the role of electron transport in the conservation of energy during cellular respiration. Briefly define proton motive force and it’s role in ATP synthesis. Be able to describe what happens to pyruvate in the absence of oxygen, indicate why this is significant for the process of glycolysis, and distinguish between lactic acid and alcoholic fermentation. Briefly describe how intermediate in cellular respiration are used in anabolic pathways and the role of allosteric enzymes in regulation of cellular respiration.
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Harvesting Chemical Energy Cells of all organisms need a constant supply of energy to perform the work required to maintain order and stay alive. Energy enters most ecosystems in the form of sunlight and is converted to chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis . All organisms are capable of extracting energy from the carbohydrate products of photosynthesis through the process of cellular respiration . In this study session we consider the general principles of how cells harvest energy through the process of cellular respiration. The next study session presents the principles of energy capture, conversion and conservation by photosynthesis.
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Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration releases energy from glucose (and similar molecules) with transfer to ATP, a source of energy that is readily available for cellular work. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to be able to release the maximum amount of energy from glucose. We breathe to take in the oxygen needed by our cells to obtain sufficient energy from glucose. Without oxygen, only a small amount of energy is released from glucose by a process referred to as fermentation . Nonetheless, some kinds of cells are capable of functioning on the small amount of energy released by this anaerobic partial degradation of glucose. Aerobic 2 36 Anaerobic
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If oxygen is available, most cells harvest chemical energy by aerobic respiration! The overall chemical equation for aerobic respiration has a negative G of 683 kilocalories per mole (kcal/mol) of glucose. Is the Δ reaction endergonic or exergonic? C
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Session 7 (Harvesting Chemical Energy) - MCB 181 Study...

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