Session 3 (Macromolecules)

Session 3 (Macromolecules) - MCB 181 Study Session 3...

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MCB 181 Study Session 3 (Macromolecules)
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Learning Goals for Study Session 3 (Macromolecules) Briefly describe the four classes of large molecules that compose living cells and give example of their functions. Be able to draw the general structure of an amino acid, show how they are linked to form a polypeptide, and determine if a given amino acid has a hydrophobic or hydrophilic side chain. Briefly describe the four levels of structure that contribute to the final conformation of a protein and indicate why protein conformation is important. Be able describe how the carbon atoms on a simple sugar are numbered, distinguish between the alpha and beta form of a monosaccharide, show how sugars are linked to form di-and polysaccharides, and describe the general structural features of cellulose, starch and glycogen. Be able to describe the structural differences between DNA and RNA, the three chemical components that make up a nucleotide, and how nucleotides are linked together to form a polynucleotide. Briefly describe the structural features of fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Be able recognize a typical triglyceride and identify the hydrophobic and hydrophilic components of a phospholipid.
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What are the four class of macromolecules in living cells? In living cells, small organic molecules can be combined to form three types of large (macro) molecules (proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids). Lipids represent a fourth type of molecule that forms macromolecular structures in cells. In this study session we introduce these four classes of “macromolecules” that perform major functions in cells. Proteins provide structure, catalysis, regulation, movement, transport, and recognition in cells. Polysaccharides are used for energy storage and building materials. Nucleic Acids store and transmit hereditary information. Lipids are diverse hydrophobic molecules which function as hormones (steroids), as part of biological membranes (phospholipids) and in energy storage (fats).
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movement, transport, and recognition in cells. A protein consists of one or more polypeptide chains folded into a specific conformation. A polypeptide is a long chain or polymer of amino acids connected in a specific sequence. With 20 different amino acids, there is an enormous number of ways to arrange amino acids to produce different polypeptides. The information that specifies the sequences of amino acids in the thousands of different kinds of proteins in cells is stored in the DNA of chromosomes. A protein’s function also depends on its specific conformation formed by primary, secondary, tertiary and sometimes, quaternary levels of structure. We begin our consideration of proteins by examining the
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course MCB 181R taught by Professor Leonard during the Spring '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Session 3 (Macromolecules) - MCB 181 Study Session 3...

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