Session 19 Gene Expression and Development)

Session 19 Gene Expression and Development) - MCB 181 Study...

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MCB 181 Study Session 19 (Gene Expression and Development)
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Learning Goals for Study Session 19 (Differential gene expression in development) Be able to understand the three interrelated processes that control development of a multi cellular organism. Be able to define and describe totipotency in plants, cloning in animals, stem cells and apoptosis. Be able to distinguish and describe the relationship between determination and differentiation. Be able to understand the role of pattern formation and positional information during morphogenesis in plants and animals. Be able to describe the role of differential gene expression in establishing body segmentation in Drosophila and be able to define maternal effect genes, gap genes, pair-rule genes, segment polarity genes and homeotic genes.
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How does a complex multicellular organism develop from a single celled zygote (fertilized egg)? Zygote divides by mitosis to produce an embryo. Subsequent development depends on the following three interrelated processes: Growth of the embryo by cell division and expansion. Differentiation to define specific structure and function of cells. Morphogenesis leading to characteristic form of the organs and organism. All of this is achieved through regulation of gene expression.
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Model Organisms for Studying Development To study the connections between genes and development researchers have several favorite model organisms. Drosophila melanogaster – The fruit fly has a short generation time, embryos develop outside mothers body, and genome has been sequenced. C. elegans – nematode with a transparent body of only 959 cells, matures in 3-4 days, genome sequenced, and can be self fertilized (hermaphrodite). Mus musculus – Techniques now available for making transgenic mice and for knocking out specific genes to study mammalian development. Danio rerio – the vertebrate zebrafish can be breed in large numbers with transparent embryos that develop outside the mothers body. Arabidopsis thaliana – a small, fast growing plant with a small genome size that has been completely sequenced.
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Differential Gene Expression Differences between cells in a multicellular organism come from the expression of different genes, not from elimination of genes to create different genomes. If different kinds of cells in an organism have
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Session 19 Gene Expression and Development) - MCB 181 Study...

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