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Unformatted text preview: Federalism Federalism refers to the "division of sovereignty between at least two different levels of government" (F&P) power is shared between the federal and state governments with each level of government having final authority over their own policy domains (dual sovereignty) Federalist structure limits federal government's power federalism--localized governments are better able to make policy that benefits the members of their communities Federalism How does a federalism system contrast with Unitary government? Dillon's rule--local governments "are mere creatures of the state" State power grew out of the 10th Amendment How much sovereignty do states actually have? nullification Theories of Federalism Political dual analysts and scholars have advocated numerous federalist theories
federalism--two levels of government are functionally separate cooperative federalism or "marble-cake federalism"
ex. Environmental protection, criminal justice, health care Interpreting States' Powers The power of the federal government relative to state governments has changed over time A lot of this has to do with how the Constitution is interpreted The Constitution, for better or worse, has a lot of broadly written clauses leaving them open to interpretation "necessary and proper clause" and "the commerce clause" being two of those Because of this, the Courts are often left to determine their meaning Interpreting the "Elastic Clause" McCulloch
this vs. Maryland (1819) case drastically strengthened the power of Congress (and hence the federal gov't) Necessary and proper does have limits--see New York vs. U.S. (1992) The Commerce Clause The Commerce Clause "Congress
States shall have the power. . .to regulate commerce among the several states"
have authority over intra-state commerce Congress to regulate inter-state commerce The Commerce Clause U.S. vs. E.C. Knight Company (1895) Poultry Corp. vs. U.S. (1935) Schechter West Coast Hotel vs. Parrish (1937) and NLRB vs. Jones and Laughlin Co (1937) vs. Lopez (1995) vs. Morrison (2000) U.S. U.S. Devolution return of governmental responsibilities to the states liberals ex. and conservatives have differing views on the benefits and costs of devolution
Welfare, environmental protection, health care, "homeland security" liberals often argue this causes a "race to the bottom" Devolution states ex. offers chance for policy experimentation
are viewed as the "laboratories for democracy"
Health care, welfare Intergovernmental Grants Intergovernmental Since grants-in-aid 1955, there has been a substantial growth in federal aid to state and local governments 1955--$15.1 billion 1995--$175.3 billion 2003--$400 billion Source: Wilson & DiIulio (2003) Different Types of Intergovernmental Grants Categorical these grants-- are grants that impose more restrictions on state and local governments urban development, educational programs, job retraining Block grants-- federal grants to states that impose minimal restrictions on the use of funds transportation grants, drug treatment grants, welfare programs (TANF) Different Types of Intergovernmental Grants General federal revenue sharing-- funds given to states that can be used for any purpose Of these, which might conservatives more likely support? liberals? The Problem of Unfunded Mandates Unfunded federal mandates directives that impose burdens on state and local government without appropriating federal funds to cover costs homeland security; No Child Left Behind Act? Policy Implementation in the U.S. States Are policies implemented in ways that meet their original intent? states and localities may implement policies in very different ways ex. Environmental protection programs Policies are poorly implemented when:
there is a lack of a good causal theory too many government agencies involved Policy Implementation in the U.S. States The political interests of the state conflict with intent of the policy the degree of behavior modification required funding levels Policy Implementation in the U.S. States Late 1980s and early 1990s Erickson, Wright, & McIver Conservative AL, states states UT AR, AZ, LA, MS, NC, ND, OK, SC, SD, TX, Moderate-Conservative FL, GA, IA, IN, KS, KY, MO, TN, VA, WY Moderate-Liberal DE, states IL, MI, MN, MT, NH, OH, PA, VT, WI, WV Liberal CA, states CO, CT, MA, MD, NJ, NY, OR, RI, WA Ideology & AFDC benefits
600 MA CA RI NY 500 CT WA NH VT MN WI MI 400 NJ MD 300 WV 200 KY TN AR OR PA MT DE IA KS WY AZ MO VA FL INGA SC OK NC SD LA TX AL MS 100 0 10 20 30 ND UT AFDC monthly benefit per recipient, 1990 CO OH IL Liberal Conservative State political ideology Erikson, Wright & McIver 1993; Johnson 2003 Ideology & education spending
8000 7000 NJ NY CT Per Pupil Spending 1991 (Elem/Sec) 6000 MA RI 5000 WA CA 4000 MD VT WY PA OR MI NH WI MT MN CO IL DE WV OH IA KY TN AR VA FL IN KS AZ MO GA NC SC TX SD LA AL MS ND OK UT 3000 2000 Liberal Conservative State political ideology 0 10 20 30 Erikson, Wright & McIver 1993; U.S. Dept. of Education 1991 Ideology & environmental policies
140 MA 120 NJ NY CT OR MI MD MN IA IL PA NH VT OH CO DE MT KY 60 WV TN AR WY 40 0 VA FL CA WI NC Scope of environmental policy 100 RI WA 80 MO INGA KS AZ SC TX SD AL LA MS OK ND UT Liberal Conservative State political ideology 10 20 30 Erikson, Wright & McIver 1993; Goetz, Ready and Stone 1996 The growth in devolution has brought growth in the number of local governments 2002-74,000 The Importance of Local Governments local governments 1942--46,000 local governments Local governments have limitations primary functions are to provide essential public services competition between cities for business leaves little incentive to push for populist programs Growing Professionalization Growth in devolution has brought increased professionalization to state and local government number of staff, number of days in session, legislator's salary, stronger governors Public trust in local government relative to federal government ...
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