Chapter 8 Book Notes

Chapter 8 Book Notes - Astronomy 180 Chapter 8: The Outer...

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Astronomy 180 Chapter 8: The Outer Planets (Pages 200 - 237) Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune lack solid surfaces, are so much larger than, rotate so much faster than, and have such different chemical compositions from the earth I. Jupiter 1300 earths, 2.5 times the mass of all the other planets combined II. Jupiter: Jupiter’s outer layer is a dynamic area of storms and turbulent gases Jupiter is permanently covered with clouds Belts – Dark, reddish bands in Jupiter’s cloud cover Zones – Light-colored bands in Jupiter’s cloud cover White ovals and brown ovals – rotating storms on Jupiter similar to hurricanes or cyclones on Earth; white = cool clouds higher than average clouds and brown = warmer and lower clouds Great Red Spot – A large, red-orange, oval-shaped storm in Jupiter’s southern hemisphere Hooke or Cassini – first observed GRS in 1656 Differential rotation – the rotation of a nonrigid object in which parts at different latitudes or different radial distances move at different speeds Composed primarily of light-weight elements like hydrogen and helium with a relatively small core of metal and rock; no solid continents, islands, or water oceans on its surface Three major cloud layers: uppermost composed of crystals of frozen ammonia, the middle layer composed primarily of ammonium hydrosulfide, and the bottom layer composed mostly of water vapor Jupiter’s mantle is entirely liquid III. Jupiter: Jupiter’s interior has four distinct regions Descending below the clouds, first liquid, molecular hydrogen and helium are encountered; the pressure increases with depth Liquid metallic hydrogen – a metallike form of hydrogen that is produced under extreme pressure Magnetosphere – nearly 30 million km across! The temperature of the core is estimated to be nearly 4 times hotter than the surface of the Sun IV. Jupiter: Cometary fragments were observed to strike Jupiter Shoemaker-Levy 9 orbited Jupiter but was destroyed into at least 21 pieces Space debris is still known to collide with planets today, though definitely not as frequently as 300 million years ago The collision created fireballs and explosions more powerful than all of the nuclear weapons remaining on earth V. Jupiter’s Moons and Rings Four largest moons – Io Europa, Ganymede, Callisto ( Galilean moons or Galilean satellites ) visible from earth through a small telescope VI. Jupiter’s Moons and Rings: Io’s surface is sculpted by volcanic activity Sulfur – one of the most exotic moons in our solar system Active volcanoes on the surface Orbits Jupiter in 1.8 days in synchronous rotation; as it rapidly orbits, it repeatedly passes between Jupiter and one of the other Galilean satellites. This gravitational pull causes it to slightly change its distance from Jupiter and changes the tidal forces Io’s colors result from heating and rapid cooling of sulfur molecules
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course AST 180 taught by Professor Barlow during the Fall '08 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 8 Book Notes - Astronomy 180 Chapter 8: The Outer...

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