Chapter 7 Notes

Chapter 7 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 7: Learning From...

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Psychology 101 Chapter 7: Learning From Experience (Pages 222-255) Learning – a relatively permanent change in behavior, or potential behavior, that results from experience; can be directly observed because it is studied by observing behavior whereas acquired knowledge cannot be observed I. Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring First problem: How do we learn to notice and ignore events that occur and repeat in our world? Because the human nervous system has limited resources, we must prioritize our mental functioning II. Learning About Events: Noticing and Ignoring: Habituation and Sensitization Orienting response – an inborn tendency to notice and respond to novel or surprising events Habituation – the decline in the tendency to respond to an event that has become familiar through repeated exposure Animals tend to attend initially to the new and unusual but ignore events that occur repeatedly without consequence Sensitization – increased responsiveness, or sensitivity, to an event that has been repeated Sensitization is more likely when the repeated stimulus is intense or punishing Habituation generally occurs faster when the repetitions occur closer together As adaptive organisms, learning processes like habituation and sensitization help conserve our limited resources III. Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioning Association between two events – one event predicts the other Pavlov – classical conditioning – a set of procedures used to investigate how organisms learn about the signaling properties of events. Classical conditioning involves learning relations between events – conditioned and unconditioned stimuli –that occur outside of one’s control; studying salivation of dogs (“psychic” secretions) IV. Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioning: The Terminology of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimuli (US) – a stimulus that automatically leads to an observable response prior to any training Unconditioned response (UR) – the observable response that is produced automatically, prior to training, on presentation of an unconditioned stimulus Food = US; salivation = UR Unconditioned – no learning or conditioning, is required Conditioned stimulus (CS) – the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus during classical conditioning Conditioned response (CR) the acquired response that is produced by the conditioned stimulus in anticipation of the unconditioned stimulus Footsteps = CS; salivation = CR Conditioned – acquired as a result of experience V. Learning What Events Signal: Classical Conditioning: Forming the CS-US Connection A conditioned stimulus will become the signal for the unconditioned stimulus when info is provided (bell = dinner) CS must come before the US and the US must follow closely in time ; CS must provide new info about US simultaneous conditioning – both presented at same time;
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 7 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 7: Learning From...

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