Chapter 3 Notes

Chapter 3 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 3: Biological...

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Psychology 101 Chapter 3: Biological Processes (Pages 60-97) The brain is fueled by simple blood sugar and amino acids Neuroscience – an interdisplinary field of study directed at understanding the brain and its relation to behavior Behavior is controlled by a broad system that includes the spinal cord as well s the connections between the brain and muscles, sensory organs, and other internal structures Central nervous system – the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system – the network of nerves that links the central nervous system with the rest of the body I. Communicating Internally: Connecting World and Brain Neurons – the cells in the nervous system that receive and transmit, and integrate information Sensory neurons – cells that carry environmental messages toward the spinal cord and brain Interneurons – cells that transfer information from one neuron to another; interneurons make no direct contact with the outside world, but they convey information from one internal processing site to another Motor neurons – cells that carry information away from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands that directly produce behavior Glilal cells – cells that fill in space between neurons, remove waste, or help neurons to communicate efficiently; some wrap around neurons, serving as insulation Myelin sheath – an insulating material that protects the axon and helps to speed up neural transmission Reflexes – largely automatic body reactions – such as the knee jerk - that are controlled primarily by spinal cord pathways II. Communicating Internally: Connecting World and Brain: The Anatomy of Neurons Dendrites – the fibers that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons (1000s) Soma Axon – the long tail-like part of a neuron that serves as the cell’s transmitter Action potential – electrical signal sent down the axon toward other neurons Terminal buttons – the tiny swellings at the end of the axon that contain chemicals important to neural transmission; these pass information on to other neurons Synapse – the small gap between the terminal buttons of a neuron and the dendrite or cell body of another neuron III. Communicating Internally: Connecting World and Brain: Neural Transmission: The Electrochemical Message The information flow is predictable and always the same: Dendrites Soma Axon Terminal Buttons If a sufficient electrical signal is present when received messages sum together, an action potential will be generated Resting potential – the tiny electrical charge in place between the inside and the outside of the resting neuron This is created by the presence of electrically charged atoms and molecules, called ions , distributed unevenly between the inside and outside of a cell (positively charged
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 3 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 3: Biological...

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