Chapter 4 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 4: Human...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Psychology 101 Chapter 4: Human Development (Pages 98-141) The topic of this chapter is human development – the age-related physical, intellectual, social, and personal changes that occur throughout an individual’s lifetime I. Developing Physically In the early years we change physically at rates that will never again be matched in our lifetimes II. Developing Physically: The Stages of Prenatal Development The human developmental process begins with the union of egg and sperm at conception Zygote – the fertilized human egg, containing 23 chromosomes from both the father and the mother Prenatal development – the period of development that occurs before birth; divided into three main stages: germinal , embryonic , and fetal It takes approx. 2 weeks for the zygote to migrate from the fallopian tubes & implant itself into the wall of the uterus Germinal period – the period in prenatal development from conception to implantation of the fertilized egg in the wall of the uterus; well over half of fertilized eggs fail to achieve successful implantation Embryonic period – the period of prenatal development lasting from implantation to the end of the 8 th week From the father: X chromosome = female; Y chromosome = male Fetal period – the period of the prenatal development lasting from the 9 th week until birth Even in the womb, a developing child is not safe from the effects of the environment Teratogens – Environmental agents – such as disease organisms or drugs – that can potentially damage the developing embryo or fetus In general, the embryonic period is the point of greatest susceptibility to teratogens “morning sickness” may be a natural defense against the influence of teratogens – an evolutionary adaption (?); women who experience morning sickness are less likely to suffer miscarriages than those who don’t If a woman drinks 5 or more alcoholic beverages/day, the child is 30% more likely to be born with fetal alcohol syndrome which is characterized by physical deformities, a reduction in the size of certain brain structures, and an increased risk of mental retardation It’s best to stay sober, well fed, and under a doctor’s care throughout pregnancy III. Developing Physically: Growth During Infancy The average newborn weighs 7lbs and is 20” long Experience matters; it helps the brain to build its vast internal communication network Synapses – the many connections that “sprout” in neural circuitry Plasticity “rough wiring” is established during prenatal development which is later filled in during the first few yrs IV. Developing Physically: From Crawling to Walking Before a baby can crawl and walk, both the brain and the neuron-to-muscle links need to develop adequately
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

Page1 / 5

Chapter 4 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 4: Human...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online