Chapter 8 Notes

Chapter 8 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 8: Memory (Pages...

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Psychology 101 Chapter 8: Memory (Pages 256-291) Memory - the capacity to preserve and recover information Groundhog Day Encoding – the processes that determine and control how memories are formed Storage the processes that determine and control how memories are stored and kept over time Retrieval – the processes that determine and control how memories are recovered and translated into performance A world without memory would be devoid of thought and reason Forming a visual image of a to-be-remembered item generally increases its durability in memory I. Remembering Over the Short Term Two memory systems to prolong the incoming message over the short term: sensory memory – an exact replica of an environmental message, which usually lasts for a second or less; short-term memory – a limited-capacity system that we use to hold information after it has been analyzed for periods lasting less than a minute or two. II. Remembering Over the Short Term: Sensory Memory: The Icon and the Echo Continuous movement in a movie is produces via sensory memory In vision the lingering sensory memory trace is an icon Iconic memory – the system that produces and stores visual sensory memories; sparkler or flashlight trail The auditory lingering memory trace is an echo Echoic memory – the system that produces and stores auditory sensory memories George Sperling – tachistoscope; partial report – only a part of the image needed to be recalled Efron – the “phantom tone” with echoic memory III. Remembering Over the Short Term: Short-Term Memory: Prolonging the Present Short-term memory ( working memory )– the system we use to temporarily store, think about, and reason with info They help us produce and interpret spoken language, remember phone numbers, reason, problem solve, and think Short-term memories are not exact copies of the environmental message; usually stored w/ inner voice, not images There is a connection between visual perception and mental imagery Rehearsal – a strategic process that helps to maintain short-term memories indefinitely through the use of internal repetition; prolonging short-term memories; re- hear -sal – listening to inner voice Lloyd and Margaret Peterson – memory test with 3 letters and counting backward by 3’s Short-term memory is great for maintaining info over the short term, but only if you’re paying attention Decay – the process where short-term memories are lost spontaneously over time Short-term forgetting is caused by interference Memory span – the number of items that can be recalled from short-term memory in their proper presentation order on half of
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 8 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 8: Memory (Pages...

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