Final Exam Study Guide

Final Exam Study Guide - Cumulative Final Study Guide...

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Cumulative Final Study Guide Chapter One The important aspects from this chapter are the problems and challenges to behaviorism and why cognitive psychology began. To understand this you should focus on the following: Behaviorism and its three necessary components Stimulus, Response, Reinforcement Their view of cognition and “the black box” Behaviorism – (rejected structuralism and functionism) emphasized observable, measurable, and repeatable responses and stimuli Three Aspects of Scientific Study According to Behaviorist The “Black Box ” It exists but does not cause behavior. S BB R R = eating S = hunger? No! S = low insulin, or seeing delicious food Stimulus Response – No learning w/o it Reinforcement – Glue that holds S and R together. No learning w/o it Contributions: Pushed psychology towards science Lacking: The mind! Evidence against behaviorism : Learning without Responding (Rats in T Maze) Rats in cart driven by experimenter learned where the cheese was (to the right) even tho there was no Response in the S-R relationship. Behaviorist would say it’s impossible Learning without Reinforcement (Larger Maze) The 3 rat group study: G1 had reinforcement, G2 none, G3 added reinforcement on the 12 th day. G3 learned the maze w/o reinforcement. Learned by living it/forming mental map (latent learning) Latent Learning – learning without reinforcement (reward) or expectation of such. Remains latent until needed. Like where’s the closest post office? Cognitive Map (Three Path Maze) is created from latent learning Chapter Two I want you to understand how we perceive and how our brain can sometimes lead us astray in perception. To understand this you should focus on the following: Top Down Processing Top Down Processing (conceptually driven) Interpretation is influenced by expectations, knowledge, context The McGurk Effect Synesthesia (what is it, what is a potential neurological explanation) Blindsight (what is it, relate it to access and phenomenal consciousness) Synesthesia One sense activates another sense
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Involuntary Automatic Unidirectional Consistent Hearing color Grapheme-Color What is a potential explanation if it? Neural cross-talk, overlap, confusion McGurk Effect What do we see/hear? Dah dah? Gah Gah? Bah Bah? Why does it happen? Mouth/Vision: Gah Speech/Audition: Bah Combination: Scrambled Gah + Bah ~ Dah Cross-Modal Interpretation Blindsight (not seeing shit on one side, but somehow knowing it’s there when forced to choose) D.B. Right visual field Left visual cortex Access without Phenomenal Reaching, forced choice What(is visual) v Where (is detection and localization) Video of guy walking down hallway avoiding boxes on floor Emotion Processing Chapter Three This chapter was meant to show you the importance and limits of attention. You should understand the different types of attention and the problems that lack of attention causes. To understand this you should
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