Chapter 13 Notes

Chapter 13 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 13 Social...

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Psychology 101 Chapter 13: Social Psychology (pages 428-468) Social psychology – the discipline that studies how people think about, influence, and relate to other people I. Interpreting the Behavior of Others: Social Cognition Social cognition – the study of how people use cognitive processes—such as perception, memory, thought, and emotion—to help make sense of other people as well as themselves II. Interpreting the Behavior of Others: Social Cognition: Person Perception: How Do We Form Impressions of Others? We do not simply see what’s “out there” in the physical world; our perceptions are also influenced by our expectations of what we’ll find When you first meet a person, your initial impressions are influenced by physical factors and by your interpretations of those physical attributes Physical appearance is one of the most powerful determinants of a first impression; though it may be shallow, when you form a first impression, you use the information that’s available Much of the knowledge we use in social situations comes from social categories or schemas We use schemas to help us remember but also to help organize future and ongoing experience Social schema – a general knowledge structure, stored in long-term memory, that relates to social experiences or people Schemas direct you to alter your behavior accordingly Stereotypes – the collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members; common stereotypes include those based on gender, race, and age Prototype theories of stereotypes assume we store abstract representations of the typical features of a group and then judge particular individuals based on their similarity to the prototype Exemplar theories assume we store memories of particular individuals, or exemplars, and these individual memories form the basis for stereotypes Stereotypes become “activated” whenever we’re exposed to stereotypic beliefs and actions Self-fulfilling prophecy effect – a condition in which our expectations about the actions of another person actually lead that person to behave in the expected way The expectations that we have toward others, along with our actions can actually influence them to act in the expected way Stereotypes can lead to rigid interpretations of people and cause us to overgeneralize and place too much emphasis on the differences that exist between groups, and too little emphasis on the difference that exist within groups Prejudice – positive or negative evaluations of a group and its members Discrimination – behaviors that are directed against members of a group These may be automatically activated and not always under conscious control
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We can reduce the prejudicial feelings that come from stereotypes through repeated exposure to individuals in the group Researchers assume that stereotypes have some adaptive value by providing a sense of direction about how to act
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 13 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 13 Social...

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