Chapter 10 Notes

Chapter 10 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 10:...

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Psychology 101 Chapter 10: Conceptualizing Intelligence (pages 326-359) Intelligence – an internal capacity or ability that accounts for individual differences in mental test performance and enables us to adapt to ever-changing environments I. Conceptualizing Intelligence A very common way for psychologists to think about intelligence is to consider if one can solve the problems unique to their environment, though this is not enough to account for individual differences II. Conceptualizing Intelligence: Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind Psychometric - “to measure the mind” the use of psychological tests to measure the mind and mental processes Measures a variety or skills such as verbal comprehension, memory, or spatial ability Sir Francis Galton – 19 th century – one of the 1 st IQ tests, measured on the basis of heredity (“survival of the fittest”); later proved to be poor testing methods Charles Spearman – Factor analysis – a statistical procedure that groups together related items on tests by analyzing the correlations among test scores g (general intelligence) – according to Spearman, a general factor, derived from factor analysis, that underlies or contributes to performance on a variety of mental tests s (specific intelligence) – according to Spearman, a specific factor, derived from factor analysis, that is unique to a particular kind of test Thurstone (1938) – there is more than one primary mental ability (more than just g ) Psychologists have argued for decades about (a) the proper way to apply factor analysis, (b) the particular kinds of ability tests that should be used, and (c) whether single or multiple factors are needed to explain the data III. III. Conceptualizing Intelligence: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence Fluid intelligence – the natural ability to solve problems, reason, and remember; thought to be relatively uninfluenced by experience Crystallized intelligence – the knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience (as from schooling and
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 10 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 10:...

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