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Chapter 6 Book Notes

Chapter 6 Book Notes - Psychology 227 Introduction to...

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Psychology 227: Introduction to Personality Chapter 6: The Biological Perspective: Inheritance, Evolution, and Personality Physical makeup today – genes; many people believe most qualities of personality are partly-maybe even largely-genetically determined Box 6.1: Early Biological Views : Physique and Personality (Sheldon) Somatotype – the description of a person’s body configuration along three dimensions (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) Endomorphy – a tendency toward obesity Mesomorphy – a tendency toward muscularity Ectomorphy – the tendency toward frail thinness Viscerotonia – a relaxed sociability and love of comfort Somatotonia – energetic desire for adventure and physical activity Cerebrotonia – a mental overintensity that promotes apprehensiveness and social inhibition Mesomorphy/somatotonia, endomorphy/viscerotonia, ectomorphy/cerebrotonia Determining the Role of Inheritance in Personality Behavioral genetics – the study of inheritance of behavioral qualities Determining the Role of Inheritance in Personality: Twin Study Method Twin study – a study comparing similarity between MZ twins against similarity between DZ twins Monozygotic (MZ) twins – identical twins (overlapping genetically 100%) Dizygotic (DZ) twins – fraternal twins (overlapping genetically 50%, on average) Siblings – brothers and sisters Both MZ and DZ twins are related to each other on the characteristic of interest by a correlation. The two correlations are then compared; MZ twins are more alike presumably because of the difference in degree of genetic similarity Heritability – an estimate of how much variance of some characteristic is accounted for by inheritance This only represents the fact that genes do matter, not that behavior is inherited or why genes matter Determining the Role of Inheritance in Personality: Adoption Research Adoption study – a study of resemblances between children and their adoptive and biological parents One method combines twin study with adoption study What Personality Qualities are Inherited?
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