Chapter 5 Book Notes

Chapter 5 Book Notes - Psychology 227 Introduction to...

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Psychology 227: Introduction to Personality Chapter 5: The Dispositional Perspective: Needs and Motives Basic Theoretical Elements: Needs The human behavior is best understood as a reflection of needs Need – an unsatisfactory internal condition that motivates behavior Henry Murray began this approach to personality Primary need – a biological need, such as the need for food Secondary need – a psychological or social need The strength of a need influences the intensity of the related behavior, reflected in many ways: vigor, enthusiasm, thoroughness… The stronger a need, the sooner it’s reflected in action; prioritizing Needs are directive in two ways: when you have a need, it’s for something particular , and they create movement either toward or away from the object Basic Theoretical Elements: Motives Motive – cognitive-affective clusters organized around readiness for a particular kind of experience McClelland said motives are clusters of cognitions with affective overtones, organized around preferred experiences and goals Motives eventually produce actions Need for food = motive state called hunger Motives are experienced directly Basic Theoretical Elements: Press Press – an external stimulus that increases the level of a motive Needs, Motives, and Personality: Motive States and Motive Dispositions There are temporary variations in needs across time and situations, but also there are dispositional needs (some people naturally have more of a given need much of the time than others Dispositions can be depicted by overall heights of needs (Figure 5.3 pg 76) Needs, Motives, and Personality: Murray’s System of Needs Murray believed that everyone has the same needs but that everyone also has a dispositional tendency toward some particular level of each need Needs sometimes fuse together, expressed in the same act; needs can act
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 227 taught by Professor Blankenship during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 5 Book Notes - Psychology 227 Introduction to...

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