Chapter 3 Book Notes

Chapter 3 Book Notes - Psychology 227: Introduction to...

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Psychology 227: Introduction to Personality Chapter 3: Issues in Personality Assessment Assessment – the measuring of personality Sources of Information Many measures of personality come from someone other than the person being assessed Observer ratings – an assessment in which someone else produces information about the person being assessed Many different approaches to this: sometimes observers make judgments without interacting directly with the individual, other approaches involve interviews (what the people say about themselves – sometimes indirect – not talking about self) Self-report – an assessment in which people make ratings pertaining to themselves Self-reports resemble introspection, and are generally not generalized, but specific Some self-reports focus on one aspect of personality, but most incorporate many Inventory – a personality test measuring several aspects of personality on distinct subscales All assessments require two processes: in each case the person who’s being assessed produces a sample of “behavior,” and someone then uses the behavior sample as a guide to some aspect of the person’s personality Subjective measure – a measure incorporating personal interpretation Objective measure – a measure that incorporates no interpretation Reliability of Measurement Reliability – consistency across repeated measurements When an observation is reliable, it has a high degree of consistency or repeatability Error – random influences that are incorporated in measurements All measurement procedures have sources of error (can be reduced but not eliminated) In order to deal with the issue of reliability in measurement, generally, you can make the observation more than once Reliability is actually a collection of 3 problems, each with their own unique solution: Reliability of Measurement: Internal Consistency Asking the same question several times in different ways to check internally for error; each item is a measuring device Internal reliability (internal consistency) – agreement among responses made to the items of a measure If the items are reliable enough, they’re then used together as a single index of the personality quality Reliability is a question about the correlations among people’s responses to the items; reliable = high intercorrelation Split-half reliability – assessing internal consistency among responses to items of a measure by splitting the items into halves and then correlating them Reliability of Measurement: Inter-Rater Reliability Some observations are literally
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Chapter 3 Book Notes - Psychology 227: Introduction to...

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