Chapter 12 Notes

Chapter 12 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 12: Personality...

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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 101 Chapter 12: Personality (Pages 396-427) Personality the distinguishing pattern of psychological characteristicsthinking, feeling, and behavingthat differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across situations Essentially the study of individual differences Trait a stable predisposition to act or behave in a certain way I. Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality Trait theories formal systems for assessing how people differ, particularly in their predispositions to respond in certain ways across situations; use a psychometric approach they seek to identify stable individual differences by analyzing performances of large groups of people on rating tests or questionnaires 1/22 words in the English language are considered to be trait-related terms II. Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality: The Factor Analytic Approach Factor analysis a mathematical procedure that is used to analyze correlations among test responses; logic: discover the common denominators for personality by noting which terms cluster statistically in a group Cattell identified 16 basic personality factors from a set of traits that originally numbered in the 1000s (called source traits ) Source traits are sets of opposing poles like relaxedtense, reservedoutgoing Eysenck settled on only 3 superfactors : the dimension of extroversion , which refers roughly to how outgoing and sociable you are; the dimension of neuroticism , which captures your degree of anxiety, worry, or moodiness; and the dimension of psychoticism , which represents your tendencies to be insensitive uncaring, or cruel toward others Big Five the five dimensions of personalityextroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and opennessthat have been isolated through the application of factor analysis (highly accepted among psychologists) These 5 are thought to be more universal than dependant on cultural background III. Conceptualizing and Measuring Personality: Allports Trait Theory Believed that people possess underlying personality traits or predispositions to respond Personality is a measure of ones uniqueness as an individual; so emphasis shouldnt be on groups His approach was called idiographic and was to study particular individuals in great detail over lifetime versus situational Cardinal traits Allports term to describe personality traits that dominate an individuals life, such as passion to sere others or to accumulate wealth (believed these were rare) Central traits Allports term to describe the 5 10 descriptive traits that you would use to describe someone you know friendly, trustworthy, etc Secondary traits the less obvious characteristics of an individuals personality that do not always appear in his or her behavior, such as testiness when on a diet Personality traits can be classified in terms of...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor Gardner&walters during the Fall '07 term at N. Arizona.

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Chapter 12 Notes - Psychology 101 Chapter 12: Personality...

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