Oxygen - Oxygen-Oxygen tubing is green-Tracing lines start...

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Oxygen -Oxygen tubing is green -Tracing lines: start from patient and then go out -mixing up lines can kill patients -air embolism: when air is pushed into vein; can kill patient; similar to a clot -required to sustained life -clear and odorless -RA (room air) 20-21% oxygen -usually needs doctors order to administer but a nurse can use independent nursing process -hypoxia: amout of oxygen reaching tissues -4 to 6 minutes before patient has brain damage from lack of oxygen -volume: measured by liter; flow meter (0-15 mL) -concentration: the amount of air that’s mixing with the oxygen -desaturation: when blood doesn’t get oxygen Oxygen transport -carried by RBCs -needs to be continuous; can’t be interrupted -pulse-oxsymeter: SPO2 how much oxygen is bound by hemoglobin, should be >95%; PaO2 oxygen in arteries, should be >80mmHg Respiratory system -trachea down is lower respiratory system -ashma: constriction of lower airway -larynx and up is upper airway -diaphragm: major inspiration muscle -ventilation: air exchange
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-diffusion: movement of oxygen from higher concentration to lower concentration -perfusion: is the heart and cardio vascular system about to pump blood and air to tissues and lungs. -mucus prevents gas exchange Gas exchange -veins carry deoxygenated blood -arteries carry oxygenated blood -apex -base Inhalation -diaphragm flattens due to phrenic nerve -external intercostal muscles contract Exhalation -muscles of inhalation relax -thoracic cavity recoils -lung volume decreases -air flows down pressure gradient and out of lungs -elderly lose elasticity in the lungs Respiration Physiology -accessory muscles: found in intercostal muscles, abdominal muscles, and sterno-clido-mastoid. Use of muscles creates higher demand use more energy which in turn lowers O2 being delivered. -I: inspection -P: palpation -P: percussion -A: auscultation
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-hypoxia: lack of O2. Signs anxious, shortness of breath, increased heart rate, positioning (tripoding) -compliance: ability of lungs to stretch -airway resistance -lung volumes and capacities: patients blow into chamber for assessment. 500ml in and out each
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