Ch. 5 vocab - Chapter 5 Vocabulary Absolute configuration...

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Chapter 5 Vocabulary Absolute configuration : The detailed stereochemical picture of a molecule, including how the atoms are arranged in space. Alternatively, the (R) or (S) configuration at each asymmetric carbon atom. (p.201) Achiral : Not chiral (p.168) Allenes : Compounds having two C=C double bonds that meet at a single carbon atom, C=C=C. The two outer carbon atoms are trigonal planar, with their planes perpendicular to each other. Many substituted allenes are chiral. (p. 190) Asymmetric Carbon Atom (Chiral Carbon Atom) : A carbon atom that is bonded to four different groups. (p.170) Cahn-Ingold-Prelog convention : The accepted method for designating the absolute configuration of a chirality center (usually an asymmetric carbon) as wither (R) or (S). (p. 175) Chiral : Different from its mirror image (p. 168) Chirality Center : The IUPAC term for an atom holding a set of lifands in a spatial arrangement that is not super imposable on its mirror image. Asymmetric carbon atoms are the most common chirality centers. (p.170) Chiral probe : A molecule or an object that is chiral and can use its own chirality to differentiate between mirror images. (p. 184) Cis : On the same side of a ring or double bond. (p.196) Cis-trans isomers (geometric isomers) : Isomers that differ in their geometric arrangement on a ring or double bond; Cis-trans isomers are a subclass of disastereomers. (p.196) Configurations : The two possible spatial arrangements around a chirality center or other Stereocenter. (p.175) Conformers (conformational Isomers) : Structures that differ only by rotations around the single bonds. In most cases, conformers interconvert at room temperature; thus, they are not different compounds and not true isomers. (p.188) Constitutional Isomers (Structural Isomers) : Isomers that differ in the order in which their atoms are bonded together. (p.167) D-L Configurations (Fischer-Rosanoff convention) : D has the same relative configuration as (+) – glyceraldehydes. L has the same relative configuration as (-) –glyceraldehydes. (p.202) Dextrorotatory, (+), (d) : Rotating the plane of polarized light clockwise. (p.182) Disastereomers : Stereoisomer’s that are not mirror images. (p.196)
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Entiomeric excess (e.e.) : The excess of one enantiomer in a mixture of enantiomers expressed as a % of the mixture. Similar to optical purity. (p.186) e.e = |R-S| / R+S x 100% Enantiomers : A pair of nonsuperimposable mirror-image molecules; mirror image isomers. (p.169) Fischer Projection : A method for drawing asymmetric carbon atoms as a cross. The carbon chain is kept along the vertical, with the IUPAC numbering from top to bottom. Vertical bonds project away from the viewer, and horizontal bonds project towards the viewer. (p. 191) Internal mirror plane : (sigma) a plane of symmetry through the middle of a molecule, dividing the molecule into two mirror-image halves. A molecule with an internal mirror plane of symmetry cannot by chiral. Isomers
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Ch. 5 vocab - Chapter 5 Vocabulary Absolute configuration...

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