World Civilization Chapter Notes 16-23

World Civilization Chapter Notes 16-23 - World Civilization...

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World Civilization Chapter Notes 16-23 “Like all other living creatures, early humans were products of biological adjustments to changing environments. Over millions of years, our ancestors in eastern and southern Africa evolved biologically to enhance their chances for survival (xxiii).” Chapter 16 The Maritime Revolution I. Global Maritime Expansion Before 1450 Before this time of exploration the people of the Americas and Europe were isolated from one another by the ocean. This is not to say that there were not earlier explorations… as can be seen by the Polynesians voyaging in the Pacific Ocean where they later colonized the Hawaiian Islands by 500 CE, and New Zealand by 1200. Malayo- Indonesians had also colonized the island of Madagascar, which was also inhabited by Africans who crossed 300 miles from the mainland in the centuries up to 1500. Between 1405-1433, China sponsored expeditions in the Indian Ocean with the support of the Ming emperor, Zheng He. And in the early part of the Middle Ages were the Vikings who settled Iceland 770 Greenland 982 Vineland 997 Newfoundland (maybe as early as 991) In the 14 th century Genoese and Portuguese mariners discovered the islands of Madeira, Azores, and the Canaries. North American Indians known as the Arawak also participated in maritime exploration as they traveled from the Lesser Antilles (Barbados, Martinique, and Guadeloupe) into the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico) as well as into the Bahamas. b. European Expansion 1400-1550 1
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Although, such voyages are rather incredible, it was the maritime exploration of Spain and Portugal that had a profound impact on the world as it ended the isolation of the Americas from the rest of the world, which led to a global interaction. Having gained their independence from Muslim rule, the Spanish and Portuguese were motivated to explore for 1) Economic Gains- Greed 2) Christian Militancy- conversion of heathens 3) Geographical curiosity of the outside world The Portuguese along these lines decided to make investments on maritime exploration because of their history of warfare with the Muslims. So in 1415 Prince Henry who is also known as Henry the Navigator led an attack on Ceuta for gold and slaves- and spent the rest of his life promoting the exploration of the South Atlantic along the west coast of Africa. His voyages of exploration made use of the caravel, which is a sailing vessel that is 1/5 the size of the largest European sailing ships as well as that of the Chinese junks. The advantages of this ship were that it could enter shallow coastal waters, explore up rivers, and they were strong enough to weather ocean storms. He also studied and improved navigational instruments such as the compass and astrolabe. After his death in 1460, his explorers had voyaged 600 miles of the
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2008 for the course UGC 112 taught by Professor Barry during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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World Civilization Chapter Notes 16-23 - World Civilization...

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