Unformatted text preview: KSL Library \l'0 " LEGAL PRACTICE MANAGEMENT — HRM
TOPIC: STAFF DEVELOPMENT This topic discusses the human resource function of human resource development. This is the
function concerned with ensuring that the organization has the right kind of human
qualiﬁcations in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes through training, education and
development. It will cover three main areas: 3.1 Employee Training and development
3.2 Career planning and development
3.3 Internal mobility Objectives
At the end of this section you should be able to:
0 Explain the difference between training, development, learning and
0 Describe the purpose/objectives of training
0 Appreciate the need for employee training
0 Explain the process of training Deﬁnitions
a) Training b) Development c) Education d) Learning There are two levels of skills required of an employee; operational skills and supervisory/management
skills. Operational skills are the hands-on skills required to perform the speciﬁc tasks that make up ajob.
These skills are required by both operational and management staff. An effectiVe manager must have
some hands-on skills so as to win the respect of his juniors and thus be a more effective manager. Supervisory/Management skills are the skills required by supervisors and managers in order to get
work done through other people.
Need for training The need for training arises due to the ever present gap betweenjob demands and employee
competencies. The degree to which this gap exists between an employee and his job needs to be
identiﬁed and a relevant training intervention instituted to bridge the gap for each employee. KSL Library The need for training include:- (i)
(x) Sub-optimal performance of organisations in government, public and private sectors. The ever widening gap between planning, implementation and completion of projects.
Technological change necessitating acquisition of new knowledge, ability and skills.
Increasing demand for managers and workmen to improve quality. Increasing uncertainties and complexities in the total environment necessitating ﬂexible and
adaptive responses from organisations. Need for both individuals and organisations to grow at a rapid pace. To meet challenges posed by the global competition. To hamess the human potential and give expression to their creative urges. To enable employees to move from one job to another. To bridge the gap between what the employee has in terms of knowledge and skill and what his/ her job actually demands. Aims of training and development 0)
(v) (vi) (vii)
(xiii) (xiv) Develop the competencies of employees and improve their performance Help people grow within the organization to meet ﬁJture needs for HR.
Reduce learning time for new employees or those on transfer or promotion.
Increased productivity — training increases the labour productivity.
Employee’s morale is increased/improved thus favorable attitude, loyalty and cooperation.
Reduced costs due to low accidents and sub-standard products and wastage of resources.
Greater organizational stability and ﬂexibility to adapt to changing environments. Meets the needs of individuals in search of life long careers.
Promote employment chances and utilize people’s talents. Attracts high quality staff.
Helps to develop a positive culture within the organization. Provides higher levels of service to customers.
Managerial succession Broad areas of training are:- a) 1)) Knowledge: Training aimed at imparting knowledge to employees provides for facts,
information and principles related to his/her job. In general, training imparted in the
knowledge area considers three aspects, namely, job context, job content and quality of work.
Professional employees join organizations with knowledge already acquired from the
university or college. Technical Skills: The training in this area aims at teaching the employees the physical acts
associated with performing the job e.g. courter presentation as defense lawyer,
organization of clients ﬁles, professional etiquette etc. KSL Library c) Social Skills: This category of training aims at the development of individuals and team
work. It concentrates on behavioral and interpersonal relationship skills necessary for
teamwork, good customer care, and effective leadership. d) Techniques: Training in this area involves teaching employees how and when to apply skills
and knowledge learnt. e) Attitudes: This involves orientation or induction programmes that help change the
employees’ attitudes. Such training is favourable towards the achievement of organizational
goals. THE PROCESS OF TRAINING
Introduction Training writers have formulated models — referred to as systematic training models/ or
process that consists of critical events in the training process. Nadler (1982) proposes a general model with the following steps:
Identiﬁcation of training needs
Determining learning objectives
Compiling a syllabus
Selecting instructional strategies
This process can however be condensed to four steps namely:
0 . _ identiﬁcation .of. trainingneeds 0 Course development or programme design
a Course presentation
0 Course evaluation
We shall study each of these steps in the training process. O‘S‘PP’E‘JI“ 1. Identiﬁcation of Training Needs (or Training Needs Analysis- TNA) Meaning of TNA TNA refers to the determination of the gap between what employees must do and what they
actually can do. It deals with identifying the gap between current and expected results. Where there is a performance deviation it implies that the expected stande of performance must be
known so as to identify the gap. NB: A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge or skills to perform an
assigned task satisfactorily. A training need also exists when an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the
human/people aspect of organizational performance. Situations that may lead to TNA New products, New markets, New system installations, Adoption of new managerial
techniques/or organization structure, New legislation, Performance problems e.g. customer
complaints, high labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents and low productivity. KSL Library Importance of TNA Provides necessary information about participants i.e. target population of trainees
e.g. age, education, gender, occupation, interests etc. this enables trainers to design
Identify employee difﬁculties and performance problems. This enables trainer to
match employee skills and knowledge needs with organization needs — what the
organization wants them to know.
Training needs can form training modules or topics e.g. skills in customer care -
public relations, human relations, leadership, communication etc.
Provide documentation and materials for training ~ interviews and observations
enable collection of organization charts, job descriptions, policy documents, samples
of work schedules, references, samples etc. that can be useful in training.
Provides information on attitudes towards training e. g. - Do employees/supervisors value training? - Do they believe they need to learn and change? - Do they believe a need exists? - Are they motivated?
Increases employee involvement and participation motivated by the interest others
show in them - Creates interest and acceptance of the training - Contributes to its success; motivation to learn - See the link between the training and their needs/ work situation Useful in establishing contacts with subject specialists/ professionals - Subject specialists in other departments met during needs analysis can be invited as guest presenters during training
- Act as mentors in future for new employees (informally). Estimation of training cost - Importance of the training, the target population
Enables trainer to draw up a detailed programme and costs.
Saves time, money and resources - Enables training to target real needs - Differentiates a training need ﬁom a non-training need hence saving resources - Focused not haphazard.
Provides a means of measuring training effectiveness - Generates data useful in evaluating training
As training is directed towards actual learning needs, it can be
evaluated. Methods for identifying training needs
b) Focus groups
c) Questionnaires and surveys
e) Secondary sources/document analysis 2. Course development/ program design What is course development/ program design? KSL Library It is the step in the training process of developing the learning content to ﬁt the identiﬁed
needs of the trainees. Importance of course development Decisions are made on the kind of content to impart to trainees — knowledge, skill or
attitudinal. Process of course development / design Course development involves: Formulation of training objectives This is the most important step. Objectives are drawn from the training needs.
Robert Mager (1975) deﬁned an objective as: “A description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you
consider them competent. An objective describes an intended result of the instruction
rather than the process of instruction itself”. The emphasis here is the need for learner performance and the demonstration of knowledge
and/ or skills. Training objectives are set in terms of behavioral changes of the employee. They must be SMART.
For example “.By the end of the training the trainee should be able to DRAFT a simple sale
agreement”. Importance of training objectives 1). They guide the course developer in the selection and development of
information, materials and activities. Objectives force the trainer to think
seriously about what is worth teaching and spending resources on. 2). They direct presentation of training — provides focus and direction of the
course and for participants — easy to follow teaching. 3). They help participants to organize their learning efforts — people learn better
when they know what is expected of them. 4). They provide a means of evaluating the course (did the participants achieve
the objectives?) NB: if objectives are not identiﬁed and clariﬁed, there will be confusion in course development, presentation, participants and evaluation. Objectives are not ﬁxed; they are ﬂexible and can be
changed where necessary during a course. Process of writing course objectives
(How to write course objectives)
Bloom came up with taxonomy of course objectives: These are: Knowledge objectives (cognitive domain) — providing information about e.g. a new
job, procedure etc KSL Library Skill objectives (psychomotor domain) — ability to operate a machine etc Attitudinal objectives (affective domain) — targets change of attitudes, breaking
resistance etc A course developer should prioritize the objectives; decide what is essential and what is nice
to know based on the various domains. Difﬁculty of objectives: Knowledge objectives are the easiest to achieve, followed by skill objectives. The most
difﬁcult are the attitudinal objectives. Hierarchy of objectives:
How should objectives ﬂow logically? 1). Knowledge objectives usually come ﬁrst — information, guidelines, procedures
etc 2). Practice (skill) comes second and 3). Attitude objectives come last 3. Writing Course Content Step 1: Collect relevant information and material from the client organization or participants
and specialists in the subject area Step 2: Review relevant off- the - shelf courses - Find out what can be added to your content
- Review other literature/resource books e.g. HRD journals (in Kenya, 1PM and KIM journals)
- Include a bibliography in handouts (credits the course developer with having done
some previous work)
Step 3: Find out different ways of presenting a course content e.g. audio-visual aids, built-in
structured experiences into the presentation of the content e.g. icebreakers, case studies,
games, group tasks, role plays or problem solving. - It adds variety and increases learning effectiveness.
Step 4: Divide the course and organize it in such a way that each objective is covered
individually. - Prepare sufficient content to accomplish each objective - Devise relevant activities to apply the knowledge or skill to be learnt. - Provide evaluation/feedback to measure whether the objective has been achieved
Step 5: Write a lesson plan. A lesson plan is a structured outline of how a lesson is to be
delivered. It contains lesson objectives, introduction, content, conclusion / summary, learning
activities, learning resources and time estimated for each activity. Sequence the content into
introduction, presentation, application activities and conclusion. Step 6: Decide on who will present the course content? - Participants —— discussions - Media e.g. handouts, videos - Structured experience e.g. case studies
- Trainer KSL Library 4. Course presentation Presentation of training content requires good preparation — both for new and experienced
trainers. For efficiency, a trainer can use a preparation checklist, which may contain the following: a Course preparation
- Room/venue reservation
- Travel/accommodation arrangement
- Meal breaks etc.
0 Prepare participants
- Conﬁrm enrolment/participation, time, dates etc
- Information on travel/venue etc
- Pie-course tasks e.g. readings
- Informing on participant objectives/ expectations by trainer etc.
0 Prepare self (trainer)
- Rehearse presentation
- Prepare handouts
- Visual aids
- Division of tasks with co-trainers
0 Prepare training room
- Set room/sitting arrangements
- Set equipment/visual aids etc
- Check other materials e. g. tape, chalk, pens, handouts etc.
- Name tags, paper, stationery etc. NB: preparation eliminates problems that are likely to interfere with the learning process especially
for adult learners. 5. Course evaluation
Meaning of Evaluation This refers to the process of obtaining feedback on the effectiveness of a training program. It
is also the measurement of the effectiveness of training. It comes usually at the end of a
training program (summative) although it can also come in between (formative). - Evaluation tells us how worthwhile the total value of training has been in respect of
the total beneﬁts accrued to it. - It is concerned with the total value of training to the organization. It is not limited to
the achievement of training objectives. - Evaluation is a continuous process involving managers, participants and trainers in
training decision-making. Concerned with reviewing progress, identifying additional
support action to make training effective —Hence it is not a separate / isolated step that
comes at the end of the training cycle. - Evaluation of training is the collection and analysis of information, which enables
effective decisions to be taken about the future training actions needed to achieve
desired organizational outcomes. In a nutshell: 0 Evaluation is not an end in itself, but a means to an end.
0 Evaluation is an integral part of the training process-it is a continuous
process. KSL Library 0 Evaluation involves comparing actual results with desired results. Importance of evaluation 1) Used to justify the organization’s expenditure on training 2) Provides evidence about the effectiveness of a training course 3) Provides a basis to decide if a program should be continued or discontinued 4) Make improvements on the program. 5) Used as a training aid to clarify issues covered in the training program or to
identify additional training needs, clarify objectives, give feedback on learning
(formative). Who should carry out the evaluation? Evaluation is a co-operative process. All who are affected by the process must participate in
the process e.g. - The trainer - The managers - The leamers/trainees - A consultant — external Levels of evaluation
Hamblin (1970) suggested four levels of evaluation each requiring different techniques. i. The reactions level It involves reactions on the content and methods of training, opinions about the trainer, the
usefulness and interest in the subject matter, their enjoyment, food, accommodation, sitting
arrangement etc. and also the relevance of the course, training materials. ii. The learning level
Did the trainees learn what was intended? It involves feedback on the knowledge, skills and attitudes about the content of the training
which can be translated to behavior at work etc. iii. T he job behavior level Did the learning transfer to the job? Did the trainees apply the learning in the job behavior
back at work? Are they doing things differently? iv. The organizational level Has the training helped the organizational performance? What has been the impact on the
organization of participants using these skills? Class activity: How can you infer that a training was success/i4], i.e. it met its objectives ...
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- Spring '16