LPM - Staff Development - KSL Libraryl'0 LEGAL PRACTICE...

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Unformatted text preview: KSL Library \l'0 " LEGAL PRACTICE MANAGEMENT — HRM TOPIC: STAFF DEVELOPMENT This topic discusses the human resource function of human resource development. This is the function concerned with ensuring that the organization has the right kind of human qualifications in terms of knowledge, skills and attitudes through training, education and development. It will cover three main areas: 3.1 Employee Training and development 3.2 Career planning and development 3.3 Internal mobility Objectives At the end of this section you should be able to: 0 Explain the difference between training, development, learning and Education 0 Describe the purpose/objectives of training 0 Appreciate the need for employee training 0 Explain the process of training Definitions a) Training b) Development c) Education d) Learning There are two levels of skills required of an employee; operational skills and supervisory/management skills. Operational skills are the hands-on skills required to perform the specific tasks that make up ajob. These skills are required by both operational and management staff. An effectiVe manager must have some hands-on skills so as to win the respect of his juniors and thus be a more effective manager. Supervisory/Management skills are the skills required by supervisors and managers in order to get work done through other people. Need for training The need for training arises due to the ever present gap betweenjob demands and employee competencies. The degree to which this gap exists between an employee and his job needs to be identified and a relevant training intervention instituted to bridge the gap for each employee. KSL Library The need for training include:- (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) Sub-optimal performance of organisations in government, public and private sectors. The ever widening gap between planning, implementation and completion of projects. Technological change necessitating acquisition of new knowledge, ability and skills. Increasing demand for managers and workmen to improve quality. Increasing uncertainties and complexities in the total environment necessitating flexible and adaptive responses from organisations. Need for both individuals and organisations to grow at a rapid pace. To meet challenges posed by the global competition. To hamess the human potential and give expression to their creative urges. To enable employees to move from one job to another. To bridge the gap between what the employee has in terms of knowledge and skill and what his/ her job actually demands. Aims of training and development 0) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (X) (xi) (xii) (xiii) (xiv) Develop the competencies of employees and improve their performance Help people grow within the organization to meet fiJture needs for HR. Reduce learning time for new employees or those on transfer or promotion. Increased productivity — training increases the labour productivity. Employee’s morale is increased/improved thus favorable attitude, loyalty and cooperation. Reduced costs due to low accidents and sub-standard products and wastage of resources. Reduced supervision Greater organizational stability and flexibility to adapt to changing environments. Meets the needs of individuals in search of life long careers. Promote employment chances and utilize people’s talents. Attracts high quality staff. Helps to develop a positive culture within the organization. Provides higher levels of service to customers. Managerial succession Broad areas of training are:- a) 1)) Knowledge: Training aimed at imparting knowledge to employees provides for facts, information and principles related to his/her job. In general, training imparted in the knowledge area considers three aspects, namely, job context, job content and quality of work. Professional employees join organizations with knowledge already acquired from the university or college. Technical Skills: The training in this area aims at teaching the employees the physical acts associated with performing the job e.g. courter presentation as defense lawyer, organization of clients files, professional etiquette etc. KSL Library c) Social Skills: This category of training aims at the development of individuals and team work. It concentrates on behavioral and interpersonal relationship skills necessary for teamwork, good customer care, and effective leadership. d) Techniques: Training in this area involves teaching employees how and when to apply skills and knowledge learnt. e) Attitudes: This involves orientation or induction programmes that help change the employees’ attitudes. Such training is favourable towards the achievement of organizational goals. THE PROCESS OF TRAINING Introduction Training writers have formulated models — referred to as systematic training models/ or process that consists of critical events in the training process. Nadler (1982) proposes a general model with the following steps: Identification of training needs Determining learning objectives Compiling a syllabus Selecting instructional strategies Presenting training Evaluating training This process can however be condensed to four steps namely: 0 . _ identification .of. trainingneeds 0 Course development or programme design a Course presentation 0 Course evaluation We shall study each of these steps in the training process. O‘S‘PP’E‘JI“ 1. Identification of Training Needs (or Training Needs Analysis- TNA) Meaning of TNA TNA refers to the determination of the gap between what employees must do and what they actually can do. It deals with identifying the gap between current and expected results. Where there is a performance deviation it implies that the expected stande of performance must be known so as to identify the gap. NB: A training need exists when an employee lacks the knowledge or skills to perform an assigned task satisfactorily. A training need also exists when an actual condition differs from a desired condition in the human/people aspect of organizational performance. Situations that may lead to TNA New products, New markets, New system installations, Adoption of new managerial techniques/or organization structure, New legislation, Performance problems e.g. customer complaints, high labour turnover, absenteeism, accidents and low productivity. KSL Library Importance of TNA Provides necessary information about participants i.e. target population of trainees e.g. age, education, gender, occupation, interests etc. this enables trainers to design relevant course. Identify employee difficulties and performance problems. This enables trainer to match employee skills and knowledge needs with organization needs — what the organization wants them to know. Training needs can form training modules or topics e.g. skills in customer care - public relations, human relations, leadership, communication etc. Provide documentation and materials for training ~ interviews and observations enable collection of organization charts, job descriptions, policy documents, samples of work schedules, references, samples etc. that can be useful in training. Provides information on attitudes towards training e. g. - Do employees/supervisors value training? - Do they believe they need to learn and change? - Do they believe a need exists? - Are they motivated? Increases employee involvement and participation motivated by the interest others show in them - Creates interest and acceptance of the training - Contributes to its success; motivation to learn - See the link between the training and their needs/ work situation Useful in establishing contacts with subject specialists/ professionals - Subject specialists in other departments met during needs analysis can be invited as guest presenters during training - Act as mentors in future for new employees (informally). Estimation of training cost - Importance of the training, the target population Enables trainer to draw up a detailed programme and costs. Saves time, money and resources - Enables training to target real needs - Differentiates a training need fiom a non-training need hence saving resources - Focused not haphazard. Provides a means of measuring training effectiveness - Generates data useful in evaluating training As training is directed towards actual learning needs, it can be evaluated. Methods for identifying training needs a) Interviews b) Focus groups c) Questionnaires and surveys d) Observation e) Secondary sources/document analysis 2. Course development/ program design What is course development/ program design? KSL Library It is the step in the training process of developing the learning content to fit the identified needs of the trainees. Importance of course development Decisions are made on the kind of content to impart to trainees — knowledge, skill or attitudinal. Process of course development / design Course development involves: Formulation of training objectives This is the most important step. Objectives are drawn from the training needs. Robert Mager (1975) defined an objective as: “A description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent. An objective describes an intended result of the instruction rather than the process of instruction itself”. The emphasis here is the need for learner performance and the demonstration of knowledge and/ or skills. Training objectives are set in terms of behavioral changes of the employee. They must be SMART. For example “.By the end of the training the trainee should be able to DRAFT a simple sale agreement”. Importance of training objectives 1). They guide the course developer in the selection and development of information, materials and activities. Objectives force the trainer to think seriously about what is worth teaching and spending resources on. 2). They direct presentation of training — provides focus and direction of the course and for participants — easy to follow teaching. 3). They help participants to organize their learning efforts — people learn better when they know what is expected of them. 4). They provide a means of evaluating the course (did the participants achieve the objectives?) NB: if objectives are not identified and clarified, there will be confusion in course development, presentation, participants and evaluation. Objectives are not fixed; they are flexible and can be changed where necessary during a course. Process of writing course objectives (How to write course objectives) Bloom came up with taxonomy of course objectives: These are: Knowledge objectives (cognitive domain) — providing information about e.g. a new job, procedure etc KSL Library Skill objectives (psychomotor domain) — ability to operate a machine etc Attitudinal objectives (affective domain) — targets change of attitudes, breaking resistance etc A course developer should prioritize the objectives; decide what is essential and what is nice to know based on the various domains. Difficulty of objectives: Knowledge objectives are the easiest to achieve, followed by skill objectives. The most difficult are the attitudinal objectives. Hierarchy of objectives: How should objectives flow logically? 1). Knowledge objectives usually come first — information, guidelines, procedures etc 2). Practice (skill) comes second and 3). Attitude objectives come last 3. Writing Course Content Step 1: Collect relevant information and material from the client organization or participants and specialists in the subject area Step 2: Review relevant off- the - shelf courses - Find out what can be added to your content - Review other literature/resource books e.g. HRD journals (in Kenya, 1PM and KIM journals) - Include a bibliography in handouts (credits the course developer with having done some previous work) Step 3: Find out different ways of presenting a course content e.g. audio-visual aids, built-in structured experiences into the presentation of the content e.g. icebreakers, case studies, games, group tasks, role plays or problem solving. - It adds variety and increases learning effectiveness. Step 4: Divide the course and organize it in such a way that each objective is covered individually. - Prepare sufficient content to accomplish each objective - Devise relevant activities to apply the knowledge or skill to be learnt. - Provide evaluation/feedback to measure whether the objective has been achieved Step 5: Write a lesson plan. A lesson plan is a structured outline of how a lesson is to be delivered. It contains lesson objectives, introduction, content, conclusion / summary, learning activities, learning resources and time estimated for each activity. Sequence the content into introduction, presentation, application activities and conclusion. Step 6: Decide on who will present the course content? - Participants —— discussions - Media e.g. handouts, videos - Structured experience e.g. case studies - Trainer KSL Library 4. Course presentation Presentation of training content requires good preparation — both for new and experienced trainers. For efficiency, a trainer can use a preparation checklist, which may contain the following: a Course preparation - Room/venue reservation - Travel/accommodation arrangement - Meal breaks etc. 0 Prepare participants - Confirm enrolment/participation, time, dates etc - Information on travel/venue etc - Pie-course tasks e.g. readings - Informing on participant objectives/ expectations by trainer etc. 0 Prepare self (trainer) - Rehearse presentation - Prepare handouts - Visual aids - Division of tasks with co-trainers 0 Prepare training room - Set room/sitting arrangements - Set equipment/visual aids etc - Check other materials e. g. tape, chalk, pens, handouts etc. - Name tags, paper, stationery etc. NB: preparation eliminates problems that are likely to interfere with the learning process especially for adult learners. 5. Course evaluation Meaning of Evaluation This refers to the process of obtaining feedback on the effectiveness of a training program. It is also the measurement of the effectiveness of training. It comes usually at the end of a training program (summative) although it can also come in between (formative). - Evaluation tells us how worthwhile the total value of training has been in respect of the total benefits accrued to it. - It is concerned with the total value of training to the organization. It is not limited to the achievement of training objectives. - Evaluation is a continuous process involving managers, participants and trainers in training decision-making. Concerned with reviewing progress, identifying additional support action to make training effective —Hence it is not a separate / isolated step that comes at the end of the training cycle. - Evaluation of training is the collection and analysis of information, which enables effective decisions to be taken about the future training actions needed to achieve desired organizational outcomes. In a nutshell: 0 Evaluation is not an end in itself, but a means to an end. 0 Evaluation is an integral part of the training process-it is a continuous process. KSL Library 0 Evaluation involves comparing actual results with desired results. Importance of evaluation 1) Used to justify the organization’s expenditure on training 2) Provides evidence about the effectiveness of a training course 3) Provides a basis to decide if a program should be continued or discontinued 4) Make improvements on the program. 5) Used as a training aid to clarify issues covered in the training program or to identify additional training needs, clarify objectives, give feedback on learning (formative). Who should carry out the evaluation? Evaluation is a co-operative process. All who are affected by the process must participate in the process e.g. - The trainer - The managers - The leamers/trainees - A consultant — external Levels of evaluation Hamblin (1970) suggested four levels of evaluation each requiring different techniques. i. The reactions level It involves reactions on the content and methods of training, opinions about the trainer, the usefulness and interest in the subject matter, their enjoyment, food, accommodation, sitting arrangement etc. and also the relevance of the course, training materials. ii. The learning level Did the trainees learn what was intended? It involves feedback on the knowledge, skills and attitudes about the content of the training which can be translated to behavior at work etc. iii. T he job behavior level Did the learning transfer to the job? Did the trainees apply the learning in the job behavior back at work? Are they doing things differently? iv. The organizational level Has the training helped the organizational performance? What has been the impact on the organization of participants using these skills? Class activity: How can you infer that a training was success/i4], i.e. it met its objectives ...
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  • Spring '16
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