Psych_Outline_Chapter 4

Psych_Outline_Chapter 4 - Psychology Chapter 4- Developing...

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Psychology Chapter 4- Developing Through the Life Span I. Developmental Psychologists’ research centers on 3 major issues: 1. Nature/Nurture 2. Continuity/stages 3. Stability/change II. Prenatal Development and the Newborn III. Conception- starts when ovary releases mature egg (women born w/ all immature eggs she will ever have, men produce sperm every from puberty on) a. Few sperm that make it to egg release digestive enzymes that eat away at egg’s protective coating, allowing sperm to penetrate (egg’s surface blocks others) 1. Fingerlike projections sprout around successful sperm and pull it in b. Egg and sperm’s nuclei fuse IV. Prenatal Development a. <1/2 fertilized eggs (zygotes) survive past 1 st 2 weeks i. Survivors replicate cells, begin to differentiate to specialize in structure and function ii. After 10 days increasingly diverse cells attach to mother’s uterine wall iii. zygote’s outer part attaches to uterine wall forming placenta through which nourishment passes iv. inner cells become embryo v. Over next 6 weeks, organs begin to form and function- heart begins to beat vi. After 9 weeks, embryo looks human—now a fetus. vii. 6 th month organs sufficiently formed and functional b. At each stage, genetic & environmental factors affect development i. placenta transfers nutrients and oxygen & screens out many harmful substances. a. Can however admit teratogens - certain viruses and drugs ii. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- alc enters woman’s bloodstream and fetus’ depressing activity in both their central nervous systems. a. Small disproportioned head, brain abnormalities, can cause mental retardation iii. In animals, found that prenatal stress leads to delayed motor development, increased emotionality, learning deficits, disorders (depression), etc. V. Competent Newborn a. Rooting reflex- when something touches their cheek, babies turn toward that touch, open mouth and “root” for the nipple. i. We’re born preferring sights and sounds that facilitate social responsiveness 1. Perceptual abilities develop continuously during first months of life. b. Habituation- decrease in responding with repeated stimulation (seeming boredom)
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Infancy and Childhood I. Physical Development- infants’ biological development underlies their psychological development a. Brain Development i. In womb, developing brain cortex overproduces neurons 1. at birth, have most of brain cells you would ever have ii. At birth, nervous system immature- after neural networks had growth spurt 1. ages 3-6 neural network grows most rapidly in frontal lobes (enable rational planning, continues growing) 2. Association areas (thinking, memory, language) are last to develop a. Mental abilities surge b. Fiber pathways supporting language and agility proliferate into puberty when pruning process shuts down excess connections and strengthens others b. Motor Development i. As muscles and nervous system matures, more complicated skills emerge- usually follows same growth sequence but w/ individual differences in timing depending on
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Psych_Outline_Chapter 4 - Psychology Chapter 4- Developing...

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