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1Scientific methodologyStudents nameInstitutionDate
2Scientific methodologyScientific methodology is a means through which knowledge is acquired by using aprocedure. It entails identifying and framing a problem. Data is then collected through variousways such as observation, questionnaires, and experimentation then a hypothesis is tested.Psychologists seek to understand that people are ever behavior-changing depending on theindividual’s environment and situations. Psychologists use the scientific method to get a glimpseof the various behaviors of the populace, their causes, and maintain them. There is better outputin academics, economy, religion, and harmonious society.Psychologists are obliged to use scientific methodology to avoid bias. The final analysis of thecollected data has to be empirical and objective. Research has to meet a particular criterion to bescientific. That is being cheap, precise, falsifiable, and replicable. Research qualifies to bereplicable only when other researchers conduct the same experiment and obtain the same results.The results enable the researchers to develop a theory that explains the observations (Borsboomet al., 2020). A hypothesis is generated from the results. It aids in predicting the outcome ofresearch under controlled conditions.A theory of research is termed falsifiable if it could be proven wrong. Falsification is vitalas researchers could lie under confirmation bias. Confirmation bias occurs when researchersagree to particular results due to beliefs jeopardizing the accuracy of the results. Research mustbe short and precise. The statement of a short hypothesis assists in replicating results by otherresearchers. Psychologists use “operational definitions” to quantify a population or an inconstant—for instance, the measure of comfort in a saloon car and a Mercedes bus. The research mustuse straightforward language to avoid generating more hypotheses to explain the same concept.
3Research methodsResearchers employ various methods to gather information. They are categorized intoexperimental and non-experimental. The use of a questionnaire is a non-experimental method ofcollecting data. It entails questions that are well organized, like in an interview. The questions arepurposely gathered data from the respondents. Questionnaires can be filled face to face, postedon a website, or through the telephone.Open and closed questions characterize questionnaires. The closed questions are providedwith multiple options whereby the respondent marks where appropriate. Available questionsrequire the respondent to reply with an answer not limited by the questionnaire. Questionnairesoffer a cheap way to gather enormous data. They are quick and can cover a wide geographicalarea within a short time. Questionnaires, however, have disadvantages. The population couldgive wrong information as per their desires. It happens to protect their positive image as asociety, and the data may not be valid. It takes a long time to analyze large amounts of data(Haig, 2019).Questionnaires are less suitable for an illiterate population. Longer questionnairesare time-consuming to design and collect data.

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