NERVOUS-SYSTEM.pdf - NERVOUS SYSTEM (p.251) - Master...

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NERVOUS SYSTEM(p.251)- Master control and communication system of the body- Acts as a coordinated unitNERVOUS SYSTEM FUNCTIONS> Sensory input> Integration> Motor output*nervous system carries out its functions through communication ofneurons, senses, and rapid electrical impulses.* Feedback loopa receptor receives sensory input which is being sentto the brain, then the brain will analyze the info and determine theappropriate response then will be sent back to create a motor response* Creates fast reaction/response- uses sensory receptors to monitor changes occurring both insideand outside the bodyChanges =stimuli>sensory input(gathered info)>sent to brain forintegration(where the brain process and interpret the sensory input)>send back response throughelectricalimpulses>muscles will beactivated in return calledmotoroutputORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEMSTRUCTURAL- includes the central and peripheral nervous system> Central Nervous System (CNS)brain and spinal cord- Astrocytes- Microglia- Ependymal cells- Oligodendrocytes> Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)cranial and spinal nerves- Schwann cells- Satellite cellsFUNCTIONALincludes the sensory (afferent) and motor (efferentdivision)> Sensory Division- keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on both insideand outside the body.> Motor Division- carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs, the muscles andglands.STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATIONCENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)-Integration; command center-Interprets incoming sensory information-Issues outgoing instructions• Functional anatomy of the brain• Protection of the CNS• Brain dysfunctions> brain> Spinal cord(remember: You can easily remember the organs included in the CNS, since both brain and spinal cord are kind of at the “center”or “central” portion of the body specifically in the central axis.)PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)- network of nerves spread across the body- nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord- serves as communication lines among sensory organs, the brain andspinal cord, glands or muscles• Structure of a nerve• Cranial nerves• Spinal nerves• Somatic nervous system• Autonomic nervous system• Anatomy and functioning of parasympathetic NS• Anatomy and functioning of sympathetic NS> Spinal nervescarry impulses to and from the spinal cord> Cranial nervescarry impulses to and from the brainFUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATIONSENSORY (AFFERENT) DIVISION-nerve fibers that carry information from the sensoryreceptors to the central nervous systemsensory (afferent) fiberscarry information from the skin, skeletalmuscles, and jointsVisceral sensory (afferent) fiberscarry information from visceralorgansMOTOR (EFFERENT) DIVISION- nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the centralnervous system organs to effector organs (muscles andglands)Somatic nervous system = voluntary- consciously controls skeletal musclesAutonomic nervous system = involuntary- automatically controls smooth and cardiac muscles and glands- further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic ns*Not all are muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous systemNERVOUS TISSUE: SUPPORTING CELLS- Nervous tissue is made up of two principal cell types. (remember levelof organization, tissues are made up of cells: cells-tissues-organs-organsystem-organism)Supporting cells

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